Which of the following is one of the two fundamental issues that the recommendations of the 1947 Hutchins Commission on social responsibility in journalism were based on?
a. Society’s welfare is paramount.
b. Morality should be a business practice.
c. Corporate responsibility is essential.
d. The golden rule should be written in stone.
Why do phone surveys present significant ethical challenges to academic or applied research?
a. Phone surveys are often hard to distinguish from official government messages.
b. Phone surveys are often veiled attempts at sales pitches.
c. Phone surveys are often illegal in design and implementation.
d. Phone surveys are often conducted from unregulated offshore sites.
Aristotle’s golden mean recommends you should “do unto others as you would have them do unto you.”
Why is it important for journalists to, when called for, practice confidentiality?
a. so that the competition does not have the advantage of using those same sources in the future
b. so that the public is kept “in the dark” about the reality of the stories they tune in to hear or watch
c. so that they have the trust of citizens who may have inside information about important stories
d. so that there is a degree of mystery in the news, which can lead to greater interest and higher ratings
Pragmatic ethics were postulated by John Dewey, who argued that actions had to be judged by whether they adhered to a particular philosophy or guideline, not by their results.
Xavier and Juan have started a clothing company in which they intend to sell quality children’s clothing to “the world’s children” at a fraction of the cost of other outfitters. And, with the small margin of profits they do make, they plan to invest much of that into a program that offers their clothing free to cultures in villages located in remote places where it is sorely needed. They want the world to be a place where “no child goes without a shirt on his or her back.” What principle are Xavier and Juan most closely following?
a. Aristotle’s golden mean
b. the Bible’s golden rule
c. Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative
d. John Stuart Mill’s principle of utility
Advertising has dealt with issues of protecting consumer privacy through ________.
a. practicing industry self-regulation
b. creating professional standards that are legally enforced
c. creating legal guidelines in collaboration with the Federal Trade Commission
d. using sophisticated firewalls to protect data gathered
Which of the following is an example of a journalist NOT using fairness and balance in her work?
a. Casey did not cover the competing network’s successes at the awards ceremony because it highlighted their accomplishments.
b. Casey reported on the homeless situation in her neighborhood, even though she knew it would likely reduce property values.
c. Casey told her editor that she refused to write the article on the violent offender because she felt it glorified his actions.
d. Casey chose to clarify her story on the neighborhood watch, as in the first report on it she had inadvertently made an error in fact.
Imagine you are a professional news reporter for The Baltimore Sun. If your editor asks you to observe the “veil of ignorance” when reporting on drugs in the inner city, what is he really asking?
a. He wants you to interview a random sample of people from inner city Baltimore to get a more realistic picture.
b. He wants you to conduct preliminary interviews before reading background material on the issue.
c. He wants you to make a concerted effort to filter out your own stereotypes about race and poverty when writing the story.
d. He wants you to make sure you use everyday expressions when writing the story to make it easier to read.
Journalists have to be careful and cautious, as there are no ethical limits on free speech.
Gloria’s research team is looking into how effective their new “Community Clean-Up” ad campaign might be. In doing so, they are using Potter’s Box to think through the ethics of the campaign and rationalize their decisions. What stage are they in if they are now considering whether the images used in their campaign will effectively deter littering in the inner city neighborhoods of Boston?
a. Quadrant 3
b. Quadrant 4
c. Quadrant 1
d. Quadrant 2
Which of the following is a key difference between morality and ethics?
a. Ethics are not required for good media business practices, whereas morality is required.
b. Morality is not required for good media business practices, whereas ethics are required.
c. Morality is the ability to understand right and wrong, ethics are the standards of good behavior.
d. Ethics represent the ability to understand right and wrong, morality is the standard of good behavior.
What do media ethics codes attempt to do?
a. Implement legal standards that are enforceable throughout the industry.
b. Set a standard or act as a guide for ethical decision making.
c. Advance an environment where all treat each other with respect.
d. Create a strict set of rules for all media personnel to follow.
When news anchor Leona Simpson says “Stay tuned: After the break we’ll be revealing how toxic the drinking water might be in your neighborhood,” just before going away to a commercial, this is a clear example of _______.
a. invasion of privacy
Which of the following BEST encapsulates Potter’s Box?
a. a standard by which to live morally and ethically
b. a standard by which to treat others and be treated in return
c. a process approach to deciding on ethical actions
d. a rule from divinity to guide actions and behavior
Since Alexandra is looking for general principles that underlie her options, she is in Quadrant 3 of Potter’s Box.
What are the key points in Aristotle’s golden mean?
a. cooperation and symmetry
b. patience and virtue
c. moderation and balance
d. admiration and respect
Which of the following is NOT one of the five guidelines listed for the press by the 1947 Hutchins Commission?
a. Give broad coverage of what was known about society.
b. Respect not only the story, but also those to whom the story is reported.
c. Present meaningful news, accurate and separated from opinion.
d. Serve as a forum for the exchange of comment and criticism.
Sam, in attempting to use Potter’s Box to guide himself through an ethical dilemma, is at the point where he is asking himself whether his decision represents his values of honesty and trustworthiness rather than just making his media firm’s bottom line stronger and more attractive. Which stage is he in?
a. Quadrant 3
b. Quadrant 2
c. Quadrant 4
d. Quadrant 1
In her day-to-day responsibilities, Maggie has to deal with dozens of top executives, managers, and other co-workers. This morning, she had a bad experience with one of those co-workers when he barked at her for not supplying him with a report quickly enough. Rather than bark back, Maggie smiled, kept her composure, quickly printed the report, and delivered it to his desk. She did this because she wants to treat all of her co-workers in the same manner that she wants them to treat her, with courtesy and respect. Which of the following principles is Maggie adhering to?
a. the veil of ignorance
b. the golden rule
c. the golden mean
d. the principle of utility
Which of the following LEAST exemplifies “glocal”?
a. A Brazilian soap opera that is broadcast nightly to the United States via cable TV with commercials.
b. U.S. nightly news simulcasts seen in various parts of Europe, paid for with local advertisement dollars.
c. A U.S./Mexico soccer match broadcast in both countries and sponsored by Chevrolet.
d. Global coverage of the U.S. presidential race by media outlets from every corner of the world map.
Which of the following is a major issue when it comes to Hollywood films NOT making their way to other nations or regions in the world?
a. the impact of the material on other cultures
b. the logistics of sending and receiving the material
c. the copyright issues entangled with the material
d. the economics of buying and selling the material
Those who consider the current international flows of information and culture unequal tend to emphasize _______ as justification for a country’s asserting control over media flows.
a. international law
c. national sovereignty
The idea of a free flow of information goes against the basic concept of freedom of speech.
Even though Americans like the cosmopolitan appeal of some European television, movies, and music, they tend to choose most of their media from their own or a similar culture because it is more familiar and interesting to them.
Historically, trade in television between countries has been shaped mostly by _______.
The new hit show Buenos Noches is wildly popular in Mexico and also very much so in Guatemala and Puerto Rico. Which of the following is TRUE about this new show?
a. It has found a cultural-linguistic market.
b. It has become globalized.
c. It has become both localized and globalized.
d. It is a strictly localized market it enjoys.
Which of the following BEST exemplifies cultural imperialism?
a. Brazilian soap operas are broadcast to literally millions of Brazilian-born people in cities throughout the United States, where they live, work, and play.
b. Russian television broadcasts throughout Eastern Europe yet virtually no Eastern European programming has ever been watched by Russians in their own country.
c. The U.S./Mexico border has long been a place in which millions of pirated films, music CDs, and other forms of illegally-obtained entertainment crosses over.
d. The Great Wall of China is sometimes referred to as the “Great Firewall” of China, since no Internet services are available in that country to the vast majority of its citizens.
Shows like Big Brother and The Voice, that are very much a product of their own region or country with popularity that stretches out to many other nations are _______.
a. both localized and globalized
b. neither localized nor globalized
c. only globalized
d. only localized
Why do the ITU and the World Bank encourage national governments and foreign investors to invest more funds in expanding of developing world telephone and Internet systems, such as increasing Internet capabilities and coverage in these parts of the world?
a. They believe it will make for greater competition.
b. They believe it will break down political barriers.
c. They believe it will contribute to economic growth.
d. They believe it will lead to world peace.
Which of the following BEST exemplifies cyber warfare?
a. Soviet missiles being programmed with heat-sensing technology for future use in war.
b. French fighter planes equipped with sonar technologies that sense very miniscule movements.
c. Chinese intelligence officers intercepting U.S. cell phone conversations through satellites.
d. The United States temporarily damaging Iranian nuclear capabilities through computer viruses.
Because Daniella wished to be back home, and so surrounded herself with Brazilian friends, food, and music, she desired _______.
a. cultural proximity
b. a glocal setting
Based on Figure 18.1 in your textbook, what can be said about the flow of media between the United States and South America?
a. It flows in both directions, with South America sending more than it receives.
b. It is a one-way flow, from South America to the United States.
c. It flows in both directions, with the United States sending more than it receives.
d. It is a one-way flow, from the United States to South America.
Based on Figure 18.1 in your text, which country or region would you say has the most even exchange of media between itself and other countries/regions?
b. South America
d. The United States
Even though nations differ culturally and politically, they are seldom _______.
Smaller than global, but larger than national, cultural-linguistic markets build on transnational cultural proximity.
Which of the following countries would likely have the greatest success is exporting television and other media to Mexico?
Regionalization of media is quickly diminishing and fading.
Which of the following is TRUE of international trade in media?
a. It is influenced by the WTO.
b. It almost always sees equal balance.
c. It excludes completely all of Asia.
d. It is always a one-sided flow.