PHI 108


1. Construct a truth table for the following argument and indicate whether it is valid or invalid:

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e v f


\d& f


2. Diagram this argument: “An international agreement proscribes the use of gas and so germ warfare must be developed.”


1. In enumerative induction, the observed members of the target group are called…

a. Sample

b. Target group

c. Relevant property

d. Control group


2. “Thing A has properties P1, P2, P3, plus the property P4. Thing B has properties P1, P2, and P3. Therefore, thing B probably has property P4” is a pattern of reasoning known as…

a. Analogical induction

b. Inference to the best explanation

c. Hasty generalization

d. Enumerative induction


3. A factor in opinion polls that prevents the selection of a random sample is…

a. Double-blind testing

b. Self-selecting sampling

c. Control group testing

d. Random sampling


4. The following is a statement:

a. Don’t delete this file

b. How are you?

c. I want to persuade you

d. Hello from the best university in America.


5. The argument “if James Ford invented cell phones, then he’s a great scientist. Ford did not invent cell phones. Therefore, he is not a great scientist” is an example of:

a. Affirming the consequent

b. Affirming the antecedent

c. Denying the consequent

d. Denying the antecedent


6. “It is not the case that the car is red ad the truck is blue” can be symbolized by:

a. ~p& q

b. ~ (p v q)

c. ~ (p& q)

d. p& ~q


7. “Either man was created just as the bible tells us, or has evolved from inanimate chemicals and random chance” is an example of:

a. Division

b. False dichotomy

c. Straw man

d. Slippery slope

8. “Should we not assume that just as the eye, the hand, the foot, and in general each part of the body clearly has its own proper formation, so man too has some function over and above the  function of its parts” is   an example of:

a. composition

b. division

c. begging the question


9. In this dialogue “Dorothy: Are you doing that on purpose, or can’t you make up your mind?

Scarecrow: That’s the trouble. I can’t make up my mind. I haven’t got a brain- just straw.

Dorothy: How can you talk if you haven’t got a brain?

Scarecrow: I don’t know. But some people without brains do an awful lot of talking, don’t they?

Dorothy: I guess you are right” we have an example of:

a. Appeal to emotion

b. Equivocation

c. None of the above.