Business Quiz

____ are original works of research or raw data without interpretation that represent an official opinion or position.

Choose one answer.

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a. Secondary sources  
b. Primary sources  
c. Statistical sources  
d. Bibliographies  
e. Indexes  

Question 2

Which of the following is an example of a primary source of information?

Choose one answer.

a. Census data  
b. Newspaper articles  
c. Encyclopedias  
d. Google searches  
e. Internal sales reports  

Question 3

Which information source may be interpretations of a secondary source but is generally represented by indexes, bibliographies, and Internet search engines?

Choose one answer.

a. Secondary  
b. Primary  
c. Tertiary  
d. Statistical  
e. External  

Question 4

When researchers consider the explicit or hidden agenda of an information source, the source’s _____ is under evaluation.

Choose one answer.

a. purpose  
b. scope  
c. authority  
d. audience  
e. format  

Question 5

Which of the following is NOT a good reason for using secondary data?

Choose one answer.

a. Data on the past cannot be collected today.  
b. Even if the definitions of variables being studied are not the same, research can be modified according to secondary data available.  
c. The time involved in primary data collection may render the study obsolete.  
d. Authentic data required may already have been collected by other agencies.  

One of the disadvantages of computerized searches is

Choose one answer.

a. A computer search can combine subject items in different ways than is possible using a manual search.  
b. Computerized databases do not contain references to the most recent published periodicals.  
c. Computers are hard for most people to use.  
d. Computerized searches will find sources that contain the key words but each source may not be related to the subject of interest.  

Question 7

Which of the following is the first step in an exploratory study?

Choose one answer.

a. Identifying the target population  
b. Choosing a sample  
c. Interviewing experts  
d. Conducting a literature search  
e. Writing interview questions  

Question 8

An analysis of past sales data shows that the average household purchases a new vacuum cleaner approximately every seven years. The extraction of this type of information is known as _____.

Choose one answer.

a. process analysis  
b. data mining  
c. obtrusive measures  
d. record analysis  
e. trace evidence  

Which of the following is a concern with data mining?

Choose one answer.

a. The database was created for a reason that may not be compatible with the management question  
b. It is secondary data  
c. It provides the potential for extracting meaningful information  
d. It is a starting point for decision-based research  
e. It offers readily-available data  

Question 10

The process of stating the basic dilemma and then developing other questions by progressively breaking down the original question into more specific ones is called the _____.

Choose one answer.

a. research question  
b. management-research-question hierarchy  
c. management dilemma  
d. management question  
e. investigative question  

Which of the following questions is considered when discussing the management dilemma?

Choose one answer.

a. How can management eliminate negative symptoms?  
b. What does the manager need to know to choose the best alternative from the available sources of action?  
c. What is the recommended course of action?  
d. What symptoms cause management concern?  
e. What should be asked or observed to obtain the information the manager needs?  

Question 12

Which of the following questions is considered when determining investigative questions?

Choose one answer.

a. How can management eliminate negative symptoms?  
b. What does the manager need to know to choose the best alternative from the available sources of action?  
c. What is the recommended course of action?  
d. What symptoms cause management concern?  
e. What should be asked or observed to obtain the information the manager needs?  

Question 13

Which of the following questions is considered when developing measurement questions?

Choose one answer.

a. How can management eliminate negative symptoms?  
b. What does the manager need to know to choose the best alternative from the available sources of action?  
c. What is the recommended course of action?  
d. What symptoms cause management concern?  
e. What should be asked or observed to obtain the information the manager needs?  

Measurement questions are questions posed to _____.

Choose one answer.

a. managers  
b. researchers  
c. field workers  
d. study participants  
e. pollsters  

Question 15

Research design strategy encompasses all of the components below except _____.

Choose one answer.

a. data collection design  
b. sampling design  
c. instrument development  
d. data analysis  
e. all of the above are part of the design strategy  

The goal of a formal study is to _____.

Choose one answer.

a. discover future research tasks  
b. expand understanding of a topic  
c. test hypotheses  
d. provide insight  
e. develop hypotheses  

Question 17

A causal study is one that _____.

Choose one answer.

a. attempts to capture a population’s characteristics by making inferences from a sample’s characteristics and testing resulting hypotheses  
b. emphasizes a full contextual analysis of a few events or conditions and their interrelations  
c. discovers answers to the questions who, what, when, where, or how much  
d. attempts to reveal why or how one variable produces changes in another  
e. provides repeated measures over an extended period of time  

Question 18

A(n) _____ study explains what happened to a measured variable after-the-fact.

Choose one answer.

a. ex post facto  
b. exploratory  
c. experimental  
d. statistical  
e. causal  

Question 19

A(n) _____ study involves manipulation of one or more variables to determine the effect on another variable.

Choose one answer.

a. ex post facto  
b. exploratory  
c. experimental  
d. statistical  
e. causal  

Question 20

Which of the following is a type of monitoring study?

Choose one answer.

a. Telephone interview  
b. Counting cars in a parking lot  
c. Mall-intercept interview  
d. E-mail survey  
e. All of the above  

Longitudinal studies of cohort groups _____.

Choose one answer.

a. study the same people over time  
b. use panel members as participants  
c. study attitudes at a single point in time  
d. use different participants for each sequenced measurement  
e. occur under actual environmental conditions  

Question 22

Which of the following exploratory techniques is used most often in business research?

Choose one answer.

a. Proxemics  
b. Empathic research  
c. Focus groups  
d. Street ethnography  
e. Surveys  

Which of the following is not an objective of exploratory research?

Choose one answer.

a. Expand understanding of management dilemma  
b. Gather background information  
c. Identify information necessary for formulating investigative questions  
d. Identify sources of measurement questions  
e. All of the above  

Question 24

Discussions with those who are knowledgeable about the problem or its possible solutions are called _____.

Choose one answer.

a. brainstorming  
b. experience surveys  
c. focus groups  
d. experiments  
e. projection techniques  

Question 25

A correlation refers to the _____.

Choose one answer.

a. estimates of frequency with which a characteristic appears  
b. establishing of the direction of causality between two variables  
c. described characteristics associated with a subject population  
d. relationship by which two or more variables covary  
e. estimation of the proportion of a population with certain characteristics  

26

Which of the following is not a type of evidence used to test causal hypotheses?

Choose one answer.

a. Covariation between variables A and B  
b. Time order of events  
c. Alternative causes  
d. Disposition of variable B  
e. All of the above can be used to test causal hypotheses  

Question 27

Research designs may be viewed as being

Choose one answer.

a. Exploratory or experimental  
b. Laboratory or ex post facto  
c. Cross-sectional or case  
d. Descriptive or causal  
e. Longitudinal or statistical  

Question 28

The interactions between two sets of variables may reflect relationships that are

Choose one answer.

a. Symmetrical  
b. Reciprocal  
c. Asymmetrical  
d. All of the above  

The major relationships of interest to the research analyst are those which are

Choose one answer.

a. Asymmetrical  
b. Exclusive  
c. Independent  
d. Reciprocal  
e. Symmetrical  

Question 30

Which type of research includes an array of interpretative techniques which seek to describe, decode, translate, and otherwise come to terms with the meaning of certain phenomena?

Choose one answer.

a. Quantitative  
b. Qualitative  
c. Statistical  
d. Descriptive  
e. Causal  

Which type of research attempts a precise measurement of some behavior, knowledge, opinion, or attitude?

Choose one answer.

a. Quantitative  
b. Qualitative  
c. Exploratory  
d. Cross-sectional  
e. Longitudinal  

Question 32

Qualitative research seeks to _____ theory while quantitative research _____ it.

Choose one answer.

a. examine, interprets  
b. build, tests  
c. test, understands  
d. apply, builds  
e. justify, applies  

Question 33

Which of the following is true of quantitative research?

Choose one answer.

a. It uses a nonprobability sampling method  
b. Results are generalizable  
c. Data analysis is ongoing during the project  
d. Sample sizes are generally small  
e. It uses multiple data collection methods  

Which type of sampling technique involves selecting research participants with no attempt at generating a statistically representative sample?

Choose one answer.

a. Probability  
b. Nonprobability  
c. Random  
d. Systematic  
e. Cluster  

Question 35

Which type of nonprobability sampling technique involves choosing participants arbitrarily for their unique characteristics, experiences, attitudes, or perceptions?

Choose one answer.

a. Random sampling  
b. Purposive sampling  
c. Convenience sampling  
d. Snowball sampling  
e. Quota sampling  

Snowball sampling is a nonprobability sampling technique in which _____.

Choose one answer.

a. participants are chosen arbitrarily for their unique characteristics, experiences, or attitudes  
b. participants are chosen and then refer others with similar or different characteristics  
c. researchers select any readily available individuals as participants  
d. researchers systematically select participants from a sampling frame  
e. researchers chose readily available individuals as participants but seek to ensure a good mix of demographic characteristics  

Question 37

Which type of nonprobability sampling technique is most useful when individuals with the desired characteristics, experiences, or attitudes are difficult to identify or reach?

Choose one answer.

a. Random sampling  
b. Purposive sampling  
c. Convenience sampling  
d. Snowball sampling  
e. Quota sampling  

Question 38

Jane is conducting interviews in order to develop a customer profile for her client. She customizes each interview to each participant and does not ask specific questions. What type of interview format is Jane using?

Choose one answer.

a. Structured  
b. Semistructured  
c. Unstructured  
d. Closed-ended  
e. Direct interviewing  

Question 39

Which of the following is true of structured interviews?

Choose one answer.

a. Permits direct comparability of responses  
b. Encourages variation in questions  
c. Interviewer probes may bias answers  
d. Responses are closed-ended  
e. All of the above  

Which type of interview requires the least amount of skill and creativity on the part of the interviewer?

Choose one answer.

a. Unstructured  
b. Structured  
c. Semistructured  
d. Exploratory  
e. Briefing  

Which of the following channels of communication would not be used when conducting interviews?

Choose one answer.

a. Face-to-face  
b. Telephone  
c. Chat room  
d. Mail  
e. Instant messaging  

When using the _____ projective technique, participants are asked to write the dialog for a cartoon picture.

Choose one answer.

a. word association  
b. picture association  
c. thematic apperception test  
d. empty balloons  
e. laddering  

Question 43

When using _____, participants are asked to relate the properties of one thing or person or brand to another.

Choose one answer.

a. imagination exercises  
b. picture association  
c. the thematic apperception test  
d. empty balloons  
e. laddering  

Question 44

In a study of attitudes toward buying fake goods, participants are asked to complete this sentence: “People who buy fake Louis Vuitton handbags are…” This is an example of a(n) _____ projective technique.

Choose one answer.

a. picture association  
b. empty balloons  
c. sentence completion  
d. imagination exercise  
e. personification  

Question 45

How many participants are typically in a mini-group interview?

Choose one answer.

a. 2  
b. 3  
c. 2 to 6  
d. 6 to 10  
e. Up to 20  

Which statement below best reflects the general rule regarding how many group interviews should be conducted for a given research project?

Choose one answer.

a. Conduct interviews until no new insight is gained  
b. Use at least 3 groups for every geographic region involved  
c. Include groups of men only, women only, and men and women combined  
d. The more homogeneous the groups, the more groups are needed  
e. All of the above are true  

Question 47

Focus groups should not be used when _____.

Choose one answer.

a. facing a high-risk decision  
b. stimulating new ideas for products  
c. obtaining general background about a topic  
d. uncovering perceptions about a brand  
e. diagnosing problems  

Question 48

The objective of a(n) _____ is to obtain multiple perspectives of a single organization, situation, event, or process at a point in time or over a period of time.

Choose one answer.

a. life history  
b. oral history  
c. case history  
d. cultural history  
e. semantic map  

Question 49

Which type of research is designed to address complex, practical problems using brainstorming, followed by sequential trial-and-error attempts until the desired results are achieved?

Choose one answer.

a. Case history  
b. Action research  
c. Causal research  
d. Grounded theory  
e. Ethnography  

Question 50

Which term below is used to describe the combining of several qualitative methods or combining qualitative with quantitative methods?

Choose one answer.

a. Triangulation  
b. Dyadic support  
c. Inter-rater reliability  
d. Projection  
e. Component sorts