Finance Econ

When observation employs standardized procedures, trained observers, schedules for recording, and other devices that reflect the scientific procedures of other primary data methods, it is said to be _____ observation.

Choose one answer.

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a. simple  
b. systematic  
c. organized  
d. structured  
e. semistructured  

Question 2

Which of the following is a condition in which observation is an appropriate method for data collection?

Choose one answer.

a. Anonymity is desired  
b. Respondents are widely dispersed  
c. Attitudinal information is needed  
d. Natural setting is imperative  
e. Extensive amount of information is needed  

Question 3

Which of the following is a type of behavioral observation?

Choose one answer.

a. Nonverbal behavior  
b. Linguistic behavior  
c. Activity observation  
d. Extralinguistic behavior  
e. Spatial behavior  

Question 4

The most prevalent category of observation study is _____ observation.

Choose one answer.

a. linguistic  
b. extralinguistic  
c. spatial  
d. nonverbal  
e. digital  

The recording of how humans physically relate to one another is called _____ observation.

Choose one answer.

a. nonverbal  
b. linguistic  
c. spatial  
d. mechanical/ digital  
e. temporal  

All of the following are advantages of observation as a data collection method except _____.

Choose one answer.

a. optimizing the naturalness of the setting  
b. reducing obtrusiveness  
c. avoiding participant filtering  
d. quantifying data  
e. securing contextual information  

Which of the following is a limitation of observation as a data collection method?

Choose one answer.

a. Avoidance of participant filtering and forgetting  
b. Use of a natural setting  
c. Securing physical, trace evidence  
d. Required time and expense  
e. Ability to disguise or conceal observation equipment  

Question 8

A condition called the _____ creates errors when prior observations influence perceptions of current observations.

Choose one answer.

a. observer drift  
b. groupthink  
c. devil’s advocate  
d. halo effect  
e. self-serving bias  

Jane took on a second-shift as observer in the observation study of restaurant patrons. As she becomes fatigued, _____ is more likely to occur.

Choose one answer.

a. observer drift  
b. groupthink  
c. devil’s advocate  
d. halo effect  
e. self-serving bias  

Question 10

What type of sampling is used to select certain behavioral acts or conditions to record that answer the investigative questions?

Choose one answer.

a. Time sampling  
b. Quota sampling  
c. Convenience sampling  
d. Event sampling  
e. Snowball sampling  

Question 11

The error that occurs when participants alter their true behavior due to the presence of the observer is known as _____.

Choose one answer.

a. observer drift  
b. halo effect  
c. social desirability responding  
d. self-serving bias  
e. reactivity response  

Question 12

At the close of business on Black Friday, Macy’s store employees examined product displays throughout the store looking for disrupted displays and displays that remained undisturbed. The information is used to determine what items to put on sale early in the holiday shopping season. This is an example of using _____.

Choose one answer.

a. nonverbal observation  
b. physical condition analysis  
c. activity analysis  
d. record analysis  
e. data mining  

Question 13

An interesting application of _____ compared self-reported beer consumption with the amount of discarded beer containers in the trash.

Choose one answer.

a. process analysis  
b. data mining  
c. erosion measures  
d. record analysis  
e. accretion measures  

Question 14

 

A communication approach to data collection involves _____.

Choose one answer.

a. observing behavior  
b. recording trace evidence  
c. surveying people  
d. data mining  
e. linguistic behavior analysis  

Question 15

All of the following are sources of error in communication research except _____.

Choose one answer.

a. measurement questions  
b. observers  
c. survey instruments  
d. interviewers  
e. participants  

The failure to secure full participant cooperation for a study can result in _____ error.

Choose one answer.

a. measurement  
b. instrumentation  
c. data entry  
d. sampling  
e. nonresponse  

Question 17

Interviewer error may be caused by _____.

Choose one answer.

a. an unwillingness to participate  
b. participant faulty recall  
c. the falsification of answers  
d. social desirability responding  
e. all of the above  

Question 18

Which type of error occurs when the interviewer summarizes or interprets participant answers?

Choose one answer.

a. Measurement  
b. Instrumentation  
c. Data entry  
d. Sampling  
e. Nonresponse  

Question 19

A study reported in the Journal of Management Research concluded that individuals are more motivated to respond to surveys when _____.

Choose one answer.

a. the topic is salient  
b. incentives are offered  
c. respondents have a strong social network  
d. they can respond at work  
e. they know others like themselves have already responded  

Question 20

A telephone survey asks participants whether they have donated money to the Tsunami Relief Fund. This type of question is subject to _____.

Choose one answer.

a. nonresponse bias  
b. acquiescence  
c. social desirability bias  
d. satisficing  
e. sampling error  

The tendency for respondents to be agreeable is called _____.

Choose one answer.

a. social desirability responding  
b. acquiescence  
c. elaboration likelihood  
d. agreeableness  
e. conscientiousness  

Question 22

Which type of communication data collection is typically the lowest-cost option?

Choose one answer.

a. Self-administered  
b. Telephone interview  
c. Personal interview  
d. Record analysis  
e. Observation  

Which of the following is not a reason for the growth in web-based surveys?

Choose one answer.

a. Participant perceptions of anonymity  
b. Ability to use visual stimuli  
c. Speed of response  
d. Cost efficiencies  
e. Internet penetration rates  

Question 24

Sample accessibility is generally maximized by the use of _____ surveys.

Choose one answer.

a. telephone  
b. mobile phone  
c. mail  
d. Internet  
e. fax  

Question 25

Which type of incentive has been shown to consistently improve response rates to surveys?

Choose one answer.

a. Free product samples  
b. Money  
c. Gift certificates  
d. Prize draw chance  
e. Receipt of post-study results  

In considering the use of a Web survey for conducting polls of the general population, the greatest disadvantage of the mode is _____.

Choose one answer.

a. cost  
b. time constraints  
c. Internet coverage  
d. dial-up modems  
e. inability to use monetary incentives  

Question 27

When a participant does not know the answer to a survey question, but there isn’t a “Don’t Know” response option offered, _____ will occur.

Choose one answer.

a. response bias  
b. measurement error  
c. sampling error  
d. nonresponse bias  
e. unit nonresponse  

Which type of data collection mode is most appropriate for a survey requiring 45 minutes to complete?

Choose one answer.

a. Telephone  
b. Computer-administered telephone  
c. Mail  
d. Online  
e. Intercept  

A _____ is a scheme for assigning numbers of symbols to represent aspects of the event being measured.

Choose one answer.

a. measurement tool  
b. mapping rule  
c. ruler  
d. scale  
e. property  

Question 30

Which of the following is not an example of an object?

Choose one answer.

a. Attitude  
b. Furniture  
c. Dog  
d. Class affiliation  
e. Weight  

31

Weight, height, and temperature are all types of _____.

Choose one answer.

a. objects  
b. physical properties  
c. psychological properties  
d. constructs  
e. mapping rules  

Question 32

Socioeconomic class affiliation is a type of _____.

Choose one answer.

a. object  
b. physical property  
c. psychological property  
d. social property  
e. mapping rule  

Question 33

Which characteristic of mapping rules refers to ordered numbers in which one number is greater than, less than, or equal to another number?

Choose one answer.

a. Classification  
b. Order  
c. Distance  
d. Origin  
e. Exclusivity  

Question 34

Distance, one of the four characteristics of mapping rules, refers to _____.

Choose one answer.

a. the use of ordered numbers such that two is less than three but greater than one  
b. the use of numbers used to group or sort responses when no order to the numbers exists  
c. the use of a series of numbers in which each number is an equal distance from the next  
d. the use of a series of numbers with a unique origin indicated by the number zero  
e. the use of a number that is not used again  

Origin, one of the four characteristics of mapping rules, refers to _____.

Choose one answer.

a. the use of ordered numbers such that two is less than three but greater than one  
b. the use of numbers used to group or sort responses when no order to the numbers exists  
c. the use of a series of numbers in which each number is an equal distance from the next  
d. the use of a series of numbers with a unique origin indicated by the number zero  
e. the use of a number that is not used again  

Which characteristics of data are exhibited by the variable, gender?

Choose one answer.

a. Classification only  
b. Classification and order  
c. Classification, order, and distance  
d. Classification, order, distance, and origin  
e. Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity  

Question 37

Attendance at raceways most recent two races have hit attendance records with 60,000 present at one and 65,000 present at another. Which of the following characteristics are exhibited by these attendance measures?

Choose one answer.

a. Classification only  
b. Classification and order  
c. Classification, order, and distance  
d. Classification, order, distance, and origin  
e. Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity  

Question 38

The New York Times Dining Section rates the restaurants it reviews using a system such that one star means good, two stars means very good, three stars means excellent, and four stars means extraordinary. Which of the following characteristics are exhibited by this rating scheme?

Choose one answer.

a. Classification only  
b. Classification and order  
c. Classification, order, and distance  
d. Classification, order, distance, and origin  
e. Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity  

Question 39

In a survey of football fans, each respondent is asked to indicate whether they have ever attended an NFL game. This question can be categorized as a(n) _____ scale.

Choose one answer.

a. ratio  
b. interval  
c. ordinal  
d. nominal  
e. semantic differential  

Question 40

_____ describes how scores cluster or scatter in a distribution.

Choose one answer.

a. Mode  
b. Mean  
c. Median  
d. Dispersion  
e. Range  

The _____ is the midpoint of a distribution.

Choose one answer.

a. mode  
b. median  
c. mean  
d. range  
e. dispersion  

For questions 42, 43, and 44 In the results of the most recent exam taken in the business research class, the average score was a 74.4. More students earned a 78 than any other score and half the grades were above 72 and half the grades were below 72.

Question 43

What is the mode for the business research exam scores?

Choose one answer.

a. 74.4  
b. 78  
c. 72  
d. 50  
e. Between 50 and 100  

Question 44

What is the median for the business research exam scores?

Choose one answer.

a. 74.4  
b. 78  
c. 72  
d. 50  
e. Between 50 and 100  

Question 45

Marks: 1

What is the arithmetic mean for the business research exam scores?

Choose one answer.

a. 74.4  
b. 78  
c. 72  
d. 50  
e. Between 50 and 100  

Question 46

Marks: 1

The population of a city is an example of _____ data.

Choose one answer.

a. ratio  
b. interval  
c. nominal  
d. ordinal  
e. dispersed  

Question 47

Marks: 1

Random error in measurement is the error that occurs _____.

Choose one answer.

a. erratically  
b. due to bias  
c. systematically  
d. due to sampling  
e. none of the above  

Question 48

Marks: 1

Differences in respondent responses associated with where the interview took place, such as at the mall, in a home, or over the telephone are errors originating from the _____ associated with the study.

Choose one answer.

a. situational factors  
b. respondent  
c. interviewer  
d. instrument  
e. sample  

Question 49

Marks: 1

_____ is the extent to which a measurement tool actually measures what we wish to measure.

Choose one answer.

a. Reliability  
b. Validity  
c. Practicality  
d. Significance  
e. Standardization  

Question 50

Marks: 1

An attitude scale that correctly forecasts the outcome of a purchase decision has _____ validity.

Choose one answer.

a. discriminant  
b. content  
c. face  
d. concurrent  
e. predictive  

51

Marks: 1

The U.S. News and World Report is assessing the reliability of its measure of academic reputation used in its annual ranking of colleges and universities. To do so, it administers the same questions on academic reputation to its sample of academic administrators in March and again in June.Which statistical technique listed below would be used to compare the results of the March survey to the results of the June survey in the U.S. News and World Report’s assessment of reliability?

Choose one answer.

a. Mean  
b. Dispersion  
c. Correlation  
d. Regression  
e. ANOVA