4-1 Discussion: Primary, Peripheral, and Contributing Factors: what role does the environment play in behavior


After reading the following case study, what role does the environment (e.g., friends, family, careers, education, socioeconomic status, etc.) play in behavior? In your opinion, is criminal behavior justified if the environment promotes, or supports, the behavior?

When responding to your peers, share your opinions and discuss other situations where the environment has impacted an individual’s behavior. Are certain behaviors justified by the environment? Explain your rationale.

To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric.



After reading the case study for this week on a critical review of twin and adoption studies of criminality and antisocial behavior, the information presented seems to be interesting. This case study talks about how scientists thought criminality and antisocial behavior could be genetically passed down instead of individuals being affected by environmental and social conditions. After researching and doing experiments, scientists have produced that environment and social conditions have a greater influence on criminal and antisocial behaviors (Joseph, 2021).

A good example that indicated a strong correlation between the disposition of genetics and environment was the study of a set of twins and the behavior that was observed (Joseph, 2021). These scientists observed two different sets of twins raised in the same environment. One set of twins was identical and the other was fraternal. This case study showed that the identical twins showed a fifty percent concord and the fraternal twins showed only twenty-one percent. This study showed that there is a strong link between genetics and criminal eccentricity in the relationship that environmental factors influence criminal behavior (Joseph, 2021).

Children and teens are in a critical period where environmental and social behaviors can be influenced positively. When a child is taught morals, values, and rules of different social concepts, especially the social norms of society, it can cause them to think before acting on an impulse. If a child’s caregiver is not around or does not teach them wrong from right, then the things they do may seem to be right in their mind. The programs that can help children and teens learn from wrong and right and have a positive impact on them are neighborhood before and after-school programs, sports programs at the local rec center, food banks, and Big Brother and Big Sister programs.

The environment does play a role in promoting and even supporting criminal behavior. If someone is raised in a poor environment, social, and even family conditions they seem to be more at risk of being involved in this type of behavior. When someone is living in poverty, they may seem to feel that they must steal, rob, gang activity, or even sell drugs to be able to survive. It has been known that if someone is in a negative environment it can impact them negatively and vice versa. There are many ways the environment and social conditions can be changed to correct criminal behavior before it starts.

I am kind of in between on whether to believe that criminal behavior is justified or not if the environment promotes or supports it. I know that there are some instances where someone feels they must steal food to feed their family or steal baby formula or diapers for their baby in which what would happen to their family or baby if they get caught and go to jail? I do understand that some people think that they have no choice but to commit a crime because that was the way they were raised and there is no other way to live. I do believe that there are programs out there to help those in need, sometimes it is hard to get help but at the same time if someone does not reach out for help, they will never know if they can get the help they need.



Joseph, J. (2001). Is Crime in the Genes? A Critical Review of Twin and Adoption Studies of Criminality and Antisocial Behavior. The Journal of Mind and Behavior22(2), 179–218. http://www.jstor.org/stable/43853952

3-2 Final Project Milestone One


For this assignment, you will complete a draft of your summary and the crime assessment portion of the final project assignment.

To complete this assignment, review the following documents:


Summary of the case

Aileen Wuornos is the subject of the case; she is a prominent serial killer who rose to popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s. He was born on February 29, 1956, in Rochester, Michigan, and died from execution in 2002. One of the critical facts and demographic information about this serial murder case is that between 1989 and 1990 in Florida, along the Interstate 75 corridor, she was accountable for the deaths of seven men (Wuornos, 2017). Also, during that period, Wuornos was a prostitute, and the men she allegedly had contact with were middle-aged and looking for sex. Additionally, using a. 22-caliber pistol, she also shot the victims at close range. Finally, when attempted sexual assaults occurred, Wuornos claimed the homicides were committed in self-defense.

Initial hypothesis

According to the available information, the initial hypothesis on her possible motive shows that Aileen Wuornos was motivated to commit the crime by self-defense. As a sex worker, Wuornos probably dealt with customers in unsafe and possibly violent settings. It is conceivable that she used lethal force to defend herself from imagined threats (Wuornos, 2017). She may have taken drastic measures to ensure her survival since she thought her life was in immediate danger, as evidenced by her claims of self-defense made during the investigation. Wuornos’s first justification for the killings, self-defense, is insufficient to explain why he committed them (Pearson, 2007). She may have been more violent as a result of underlying psychological concerns. It is crucial to consider the probability that Wuornos endured severe trauma and abuse throughout her life, resulting in a warped awareness of risk and a distorted perception of self-preservation. These psychological variables might have increased her hostility and motivated her to go after people she deemed dangerous to her safety.

It is important to note that the subsequent homicides deviated from immediate self-defense, even though the reason for the crimes may initially appear to be founded in self-defense (Wuornos, 2017). This viewpoint shows that additional factors, such as psychological trauma and warped views, may have influenced Wuornos’s prolonged involvement in the killings. These factors most likely fueled a spiraling cycle of violence that went beyond acts of self-defense and into a pattern of serial killing. Moreover, Aileen Wuornos committed crimes categorized as serial killings because they characterize an extended time to occur and frequent cooling-off periods between each murder (Pearson, 2007). This term applies to Wuornos because she quickly targeted and killed seven men. The systematic structure of the killings and the predictable selection of victims point to a planned and intentional pattern of violence.

  1. Crime assessment

Comparison of data and evidence of similar crimes

Aileen Wuornos and Robert William Fisher have infamous criminal histories, particularly in serial murder cases. While the nature of their crimes differs, examining their cases can reveal trends and motives frequently present in similar crimes. Between 1989 and 1990, Aileen Wuornos murdered several people in Florida and was found guilty of killing seven men who, according to her, had either assaulted or attempted to assault her (Wuornos, 2017). While working as a prostitute, Wuornos sought out her victims and enticed them to isolated areas where she shot them. Her case demonstrates a pattern of specifically chosen victims and a methodical style of crime commitment. As a result, a pattern of premeditation and a desire to assert control over her surroundings are suggested by the similarities between her method of operation and the intended demographics of her victims.

In contrast, a crime involving Robert William Fisher portrays some similarities and differences with Wuornos, even though they are serial murder cases. After his wife and two children were killed in Scottsdale, Arizona, in 2001 the fugitive Fisher rose to prominence (FBI, 2010). Fisher does not seem to have murdered his family repeatedly; instead, he seems to have targeted them with a single, profoundly personal act of violence. The incident reveals a history of domestic abuse and unresolved conflict in the home. It is worth noting that the initial hypothesis suggests that Fisher’s crime was motivated by marital and financial issues, a desire to avoid taking care of personal duties, or perhaps even a mental illness.


It is clear from comparing these cases that Wuornos and Fisher demonstrated control- and situation-related tendencies. Wuornos’ selection of victims and her justification of each act as self-defense point to her wish to take charge of her own life by eliminating ostensible threats. Conversely, Fisher’s conduct can be seen as a desperate attempt to regain control of his life and escape his parental obligations (FBI, 2010). Both cases show the harmful results of people trying to exert power violently, despite the differences in their acts’ goals and effects.


Inferences can be reached about these individuals’ motivations based on the evidence and comparisons to these similar crimes. Both cases display psychological distress related to past trauma or present challenges. Fisher’s involvement in domestic violence events and Wuornos’ history of murder point to underlying problems that may have influenced their behavior. The motivation behind their acts, whether a need for control or an attempt to calm their internal turmoil, can be considered maladaptive coping mechanisms.



FBI. (2010). Robert William Fisher. FBI. https://www.fbi.gov/wanted/murders/robert-william-fisher

Pearson, K. (2007). The trouble with Aileen Wuornos, feminism’s “first serial killer.” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 4(3): 256–275. doi:10.1080/14791420701472791.

Wuornos, A. (2017). Biography. https://www.biography.com/crime-figure/aileen-wuornos

3-1 Worksheet: Cumulative Risk Model


For this assignment, you will read a scenario and apply the cumulative risk model to determine the potential cause of criminal behavior.

Please note: You will need to download the Cumulative Risk Model Worksheet Word Document and submit the document upon completion.

Submit your assignment here. Make sure you’ve included all the required elements by reviewing the guidelines and rubric.

2-2 Worksheet: Gathering Criminal Data


Instructions: Complete PART I and PART II below.


Instructions: Read through the scenario and respond to the questions below.

Lisa is accused of luring a group of men into a park, where they are attacked by a criminal street gang. She is also a gang member, and this is part of her initiation. She had a very strict upbringing and was physically abused by her older brother and father growing up. At age 13, she befriended some gang members who let her hang around with them. She started skipping school and committing petty crimes such as theft and burglary. Her gang got into a fight with a rival gang, and she was injured, requiring stitches and X-rays. A police report was filed, although no charges were brought against her.


Upon further investigation, you learn that Lisa was enrolled in several honors classes in her freshman year of high school before she started skipping school to be with her gang. In order to gain entrance to the honors classes, she was tested by the school psychologist for intelligence (IQ) and personality traits to determine the best fit for her academically. She had an IQ of 120, which is highly intelligent. Her personality traits, however, revealed that she was outgoing, quick to anger, had problems with authority, and charming with her peers. She was sent to the school counselor to help her with anger management but only attended three sessions before dropping out of school.


Using the Criminal Data Guide document and thinking about the cumulative risk model, respond to the following:


  1. What questions would you have asked to find out the information regarding Lisa’s school history?
  • Before she started skipping school, what were Lisa’s academic accomplishments?
  • Can you tell me more about the honors classes she was taking?
  • Did Lisa’s academic performance suffer as a result of her gang affiliation?
  • Has Lisa’s conduct or outlook on school changed in any obvious ways?
  • Has Lisa’s academic success or conduct been the subject of any concerns or observations from the school psychologist or counselor?
  1. What other types of information would be important to ask about to further investigate this case?
  • Accounts that detail Lisa’s affiliation with the gang, including any particular occurrences or illegal activity that she took part in.
  • Details concerning Lisa’s connections to gang members and the extent of her influence there.
  • Any prior run-ins or fights with the violent street gang that carried out the crime.
  • Background information about Lisa’s social and family life, including her interactions with her father and older brother and any other noteworthy events or tragedies.
  • Any previous counseling or therapy sessions or history of mental health difficulties
  1. Does Lisa’s IQ play a role in her behavior? Explain using psychological theories to support your response.

Lisa’s IQ may influence her conduct, but it’s crucial to realize that intelligence does not, by itself, cause or foretell criminal activity. According to psychological theories, intelligence has many facets, and certain facets of intelligence, such as problem-solving skills and social intelligence, can interact with other elements to affect behavior.

Her IQ of 120 suggests above-average intelligence in Lisa’s situation, which may have enabled her to flourish academically and possibly make alternative decisions. She may have been more significantly influenced by other personality traits and environmental circumstances, such as her extroverted temperament, authority issues, and gang environment exposure.

According to personality trait theories, people with specific characteristics, such as a short fuse, and issues with authority, may be more likely to engage in antisocial or delinquent behavior. As said, Lisa’s personality characteristics may have influenced her decision to join the gang and engage in illegal activity. However, it is essential to consider the intricate interplay between a person’s qualities, environmental effects, and situational elements while seeking to comprehend behavior.

  1. What role does Lisa’s age play in predicting her future criminal behavior? Are there developmental risk factors involved? Use psychological theories to support your rationale.

Since adolescence is a developmental stage linked to a higher risk for delinquency and antisocial behavior, Lisa’s age is crucial in predicting her future criminal activity. Developmental theories hold that most people who participate in negligence as adolescents will naturally give up crime when they enter adulthood. Examples of these beliefs are Moffitt’s thesis of adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent offenders.

There are extra risk factors in Lisa’s instance, though, which could influence her potential criminal behavior in the future. The risk of her continuing to be involved in criminal activity rises due to her gang connection, exposure to criminal activity, and prospective future gang membership. The cumulative risk model postulates that several risk factors, including a history of abuse, gang membership, and participation in criminal activity, can interact and increase the probability of future delinquency and criminal behavior.

  1. Based on psychological theories, what interventions might have prevented or reduced the likelihood of Lisa’s behavior?
  • The root causes of Lisa’s engagement with the gang may have been identified and treated through early intervention programs for at-risk adolescents. These initiatives may include mentoring, counseling, and support services designed to give her positive options and address the social and environmental risks she encountered.
  • Comprehensive school-based interventions emphasizing social skills training, anger management, and conflict resolution may have assisted Lisa in acquiring better-coping strategies and problem-solving skills.
  • Her family’s history of abuse may have been addressed in family therapy or counseling, opening up opportunities for healing, comprehension, and improved family relations.
  • After-school programs, extracurricular activities, and vocational training are examples of community-based programs that could have given Lisa constructive outlets for her energy, talents, and interests while refocusing her attention on productive and pro-social pursuits.
  • Approaches from restorative justice may have been used to alleviate the harm Lisa’s engagement in criminal activity caused. Reintegrating her into society constructively and responsibly would entail holding her accountable for her deeds while offering rehabilitation options, such as community service and victim-offender mediation.
  • The underlying emotional and psychological problems that led to Lisa’s engagement in criminal behavior could have been resolved with the aid of individual therapy or counseling that emphasized trauma, anger control, and impulse control. This approach would provide her with the abilities and assistance needed to end the cycle of violence and create better coping strategies.



Instructions: Read the scenario below and respond to the questions.

Grant is a 14-year-old male from a poor home. Both of his parents work opposite shifts to make ends meet. Since Grant is the oldest child, he is often tasked with watching his younger brother and sister. However, when his parents are home, they are frequently tired and unable to pay much meaningful attention to their kids. Grant has several friends at school that he is close to, and they are all in advanced placement classes. The school measured Grant’s IQ at 115, making him smarter than most of his peers. He really does not have to study much to get good grades, so he hangs out with two other friends and drinks alcohol with them. He is not well-liked by most of his peers, who make fun of him because he is tall, smart, and gangly in appearance. Sometimes, the only meal he eats is at school as part of the lunch program because his parents do not have the time to make dinner. Last week, he was arrested for hacking the school’s computer system to change a few grades for his friends. Although never charged, he also hacked into a chain of local gas stations’ computer systems and tried to change gas prices, mainly because he was bored.


Using the Criminal Data Guide document and thinking about the cumulative risk model, respond to the following:


  1. What risks does Grant have according to the cumulative risk model?
  2. Personal risk factors: Although high IQ is a strength, it can lead to risk-taking behavior if not used constructively. Furthermore, Grant is subjected to bullying and taunts because of his appearance, which might cause him to feel lonely and encourage him to participate in criminal activity to get attention or acceptance.
  3. Family risk factors: Grant is from a low-income family where his parents work different shifts, resulting in little parental supervision and care. This lack of parental participation could increase the chance of participating in delinquent behavior.
  4. Peer risk factors: Grant’s friends drink alcohol, which can encourage other dangerous behaviors. Furthermore, Grant is not highly loved by most of his peers, which may make him more susceptible to harmful peer pressure and probable involvement in antisocial behaviors.
  5. How might these risks be realistically reduced?
  6. Creating coping mechanisms: Given the difficulties Grant confronts, giving him coping mechanisms and resilience-building methods would be beneficial. In order to assist him in dealing with challenging situations more effectively, you might teach him proper problem-solving techniques, techniques for controlling his emotions, and ways to deal with stress.
  7. Academic and career possibilities: Grant’s intellectual potential can be positively channeled by giving him more academic challenges and opportunities that fit his skills and interests. He may feel a feeling of accomplishment and purpose from participating in mentoring programs or community projects using technology or computer science.
  • Access to resources: Grant’s food insecurity can be addressed by ensuring he has access to wholesome meals outside the classroom. Working together with neighborhood groups or food banks can help in this area. Grant’s emotional well-being can also be addressed by raising awareness of the services for mental health that are available and by offering channels for getting assistance.
  1. Positive peer engagement: Grant can develop healthy peer interactions and avoid hanging out with individuals who participate in dangerous behaviors by participating in structured extracurricular activities or organizations. He can find better role models and opportunities for personal development by creating a supportive social network.
  2. Increasing family support: Grant’s parents may be better able to spend more time with their kids if they can access resources and support, such as cheap childcare alternatives or help with work schedules. Parenting programs that improve parental abilities and communication can also be helpful.

2-2 Worksheet: Gathering Criminal Data


In this assignment, you will review the types of evidence and criminal data that are important to gather for a case.

Please note: You will need to download the Criminal Data Worksheet Word Document and submit the document upon completion.

To complete this assignment, review the following documents:


PSY 310 Criminal Data Worksheet


Instructions: Respond to PART I and PART II below and then resubmit this worksheet with your responses.




Instructions: Respond to the questions below.


  1. Review the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) website. What type of criminal data can you gather from this website?

On the website for Uniform Crime Reporting, I found information on crime rates by state, the kinds of crimes committed, and whether or not the perpetrators were men or women. Additionally, the website provides data on the National Incident-Based Reporting System, Statistics on Hate Crimes, and Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted.


  1. Using the Criminal Data Guide document as a guide, what do you notice about the information that you should ask about? Where should you look for this information?

The fact that we could break down the data into states and different types of crimes fascinated me as I explored the tool. Finding out the answers to the who, what, when, and where basic inquiries are essential. Go to the crime data explorer, choose a state near the bottom of the page, then view the filled-in data to access the data and break it down by different crime kinds.


  1. Is there a typical profile for terrorists? Explain.

In my opinion, the distinct characteristics of a terrorist are a male in his twenties who is well-educated and possesses violent tendencies or fantasies, often involving harm to people or overthrowing the government.




Instructions: Read through the scenario and respond to the questions below.


Lisa is accused of luring a group of men into a park, where a criminal street gang attacks them. She is also a gang member, which is part of her initiatioLisaShe had a rigorous upbringing and was physically abused by her older brother and father growing up. At age 13, Lisa befriended some gang members who let her hang around with them. She started skipping school and committing petty crimes such as theft and burglary. Her gang fought with a rival gang, and she was injured, requiring stitches and X-rays. A police report was filed, although no charges were brought against her.


Using the Criminal Data Guide document as a guide, respond to the following:



  1. What pieces of information are important for you to gather specifically from the scenario above?

While investigating, the crucial data to collect is who committed the crime. In what location did the crime occur? What led to this crime? and if there was a motive for the crime, it is crucial to determine what it was. Several pieces of information from the scenario above are essential to obtain to examine the Lisa case thoroughly. Firstly, it’s critical to comprehend the specific accusations made against Lisa and the offenses or charges she is accused of doing. Her engagement in the gang, including the length of her membership, her position within the gang, and any prior criminal activity she may have engaged in, is also significant. As this information may shed light on Lisa’s behavior and behaviors, it is also crucial to learn about Lisa’s background and history, including any traumatic events, past criminal history, and previous involvement with law enforcement. It is also vital to identify the person or people behind the criminal street gang’s acts that led to the attack on the men’s group in the park. Building a strong case requires obtaining witness testimony and information confirming or disproving Lisa’s accusers. Together, this data can help develop a factual, objective portrayal of the case and identify any potential legal ramifications for Lisa.


  1. Thinking creatively, where would you gather the information to start work on your case in reference to the scenario above? You may use a bulleted list to demonstrate specific points you would need.
  • Review Lisa’s earlier injury and the most recent incident’s police reports.
  • Interview Lisa to gain insight into her viewpoint, gang involvement, and potential criminal activities.
  • Talk with witnesses who saw the incident in the park to ascertain Lisa’s participation.
  • Research more about the street gang’s brutal tactics that they used in the attack.
  • Examine Lisa’s past and present to identify any underlying factors that may have contributed to her engagement in gangs and criminal behavior.
  • Speak to Lisa’s previous colleagues, classmates, or counselors if required.
  • Review any video or tangible evidence retrieved from the crime scene.


2-1 Discussion: Theory and Criminal Assessment


Think about the scenario you selected for your final project assignment. Select one of the cases from the FBI Most Wanted list. The case you select should be a crime similar to the scenario that you selected for your final project assignment. Compare the two cases. What are the similarities and differences? Looking through the learning or situational theory lens, what potentially influenced the behavior?

When responding to your peers, share your thoughts on the cases. Are there similarities in the crime scenes and behaviors? Explain using the situational or learning theory to support possible parallels.

To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric.

1-2 Journal: Topic Selection


Hi everyone,

For my final project topic, I chose serial murder. I chose this topic because it caught my attention out of all the topics. Aileen Wuornos was convicted of killing seven men who she all claimed were self- defense. I think that because she was raped at a young age by her grandfather and brother, who she ended up pregnant by and she had no way to defend herself. I think in some way she was defending herself because it was something she couldn’t do when she was younger.

The case I chose from the FBI’s most wanted list is the case of Robert Morales. Morales is wanted for the alleged murder of two men and the attempted murder of a woman. One similarity between the two cases were that they both murdered men. The difference was the motive behind the reason they were killing men. Aileen was killing men because of the things she went through as a young girl whereas Morales a man from his own gang and attempted to kill the victim’s girlfriend.


1-2 Journal: Topic Selection


In this assignment, you will review the final project, select a scenario, and categorize the type of crime in the scenario.

Begin this assignment by reviewing the Final Project Guidelines and Rubric. Next, select a case from the three scenarios provided:

  1. White Collar Crime
  2. Serial Murderer
  3. Domestic Terror

In addition to the information provided in the scenarios, you are welcome to independently research these cases in order to gain additional information to support your work on this project. Describe why you selected the chosen scenario. What type of crime is represented in your chosen scenario? Based on the information read in the scenario, reflect on the individual’s potential motivation in committing the crime. Explain using specific examples.

To complete this assignment, review the following documents:

1-1 Discussion: What influences a person’s motivation to commit a crime? Think about developmental, biological, and situational factors that contribute to the person’s behavior.


Module One Assignment


Aileen Wuornos was born on February 29, 1956, in Rochester, Michigan. She got upbrought by the grandparents after her mother abandoned her and her father committed suicide in prison. Wuornos’s grandparents suffered from alcoholism and neglectful and violent behavior, which included occasionally forcing the Wuornos children out of the home to live in the woods (Aileen Wuornos, 2017). Wuornos also claimed that her grandfather had engaged in sexual contact with her and her older brother from a very early age. She got pregnant at 14 and delivered to a son had to be adopted.

In around mid-1970s, she barely subsisted as she often hitchhiked and engaged in numerous sexual activities to survive. She got shortly married to some financially abled man who was a yacht club president but all ended as she got arrested over engaging a brawl at the bar. Upon the death of her brother, show succeeded to be the beneficiary of life insurance policy but instead she spent the money on luxury car which unfortunately ended in a wreckage.

In 1984, she met Tyria Moore, 24-year-old man at a bar in Daytona, Florida. They intensely got engaged in a romantic affair for several years. Her life continued being pathetic as her work revolved around being a prostitute to commitment of various notable crimes such as theft, forgery and assault and armed robbery. By 1990, Wuornos had already murdered seven men along the Florida highways. Together with his boyfriend, Moore, they got tracked down by the securities and arrested. She however claimed that she had killed Mallory in self-defense but upon being coaxed, she retracted her assertion. She argued that killing of the six other men occurred due to self-defense. A jury found Wuornos guilty of first-degree murder for the Mallory case and she got the death penalty. She pleaded guilty to the murders of five other men, which resulted in a death sentence for each plea. Wuornos finally admitted that she killed Siems, whose body was never recovered. Despite repeated efforts to avoid execution, she got executed by lethal injection on October 9, 2002.

This is a case of a serial killer; which entails killing at least three people for a period of time. Usually, serial killers are motivated specific psychological needs including power wrangles and related desires, revenge or control (Miller, 2014). In this case, Wuornos had unclear intention or motivation for murders. She had contradicting arguments which later retracted upon being probed (Pearson, 2007). She claimed that she was acting on self-defense but was found guilty and granted death penalty for the seven counts of murders. For this matter, it is highly probable that she committed the murders due to revenge for having experienced great deal of abuse and trauma during the childhood. Moreover, the likely reason for committing the crime was due to the need of control as she was unable to control the past traumatic events.

  1. Crime Assessment

Data and evidence of similar crimes can be used to compare and draw conclusions the factors of motivations to the individual in the case. In this case, the evidence suggests there is a pattern of violent behavior, including murder, robbery, and assault. Wuornos exhibited that she had a history of engaging in prostitution, which may have been related to her acts of violence, as she may have been attempting to protect herself from potential assailants. Additionally, Wuornos’s childhood was marked by neglect and abuse, which could have led to her feeling of powerlessness and her need to take control.

The patterns found in similar crimes can be used to make inferences about Wuornos’s motivation. She targeted men with previous links and conviction of sexual assault which prompted her attempt to revenge against the purported abusers. She also engaged in robbery and theft likely due to lack of money or resources that she could not acquire legally. Her frequent engagement with aliases and relating with Moore shows that she tried to evade law enforcement and needed support and companionship.

Based on the patterns identified in similar cases, and the data and evidence in the Wuornos case, it is possible to infer that Wuornos’ motivations were likely related to her traumatic childhood and life experiences. Wuornos experienced profound psychosocial trauma as a child, including being raised by an alcoholic grandmother and a violent and neglectful grandfather. Wuornos also experienced poverty, was involved in prostitution, and had a tumultuous relationship with her romantic partner. All of these factors may have contributed to her motivations for committing the murders.




Aileen Wuornos. (2017, April 27). Biography. https://www.biography.com/crime-figure/aileen-wuornos.

Miller, L. (2014). Serial killers: I. Subtypes, patterns, and motives. Aggression and Violent Behavior19(1), 1-11.

Pearson, K. (2007). The trouble with Aileen Wuornos, feminism’s “first serial killer””. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 4(3): 256–275. doi:10.1080/14791420701472791.


1-1 Discussion: What influences a person’s motivation to commit a crime? Think about developmental, biological, and situational factors that contribute to the person’s behavior.


Begin by introducing yourself to your classmates and briefly explain what you may already know about criminal psychology and what you hope to learn from this course. After reading the Module One Discussion Scenario PDF, address the following: What influences a person’s motivation to commit a crime? Think about developmental, biological, and situational factors that contribute to the person’s behavior.

When responding to your peers, discuss whether you agree or disagree with the argument for motivation. Why or why not? Provide examples to support your rationale.

To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric.



Hello everyone! My name is xxx and I’m a Psychology – Mental Health major. I wouldn’t say I know a lot about criminal psychology, but I did work in child abuse investigations and learned some about the minds of sexual predators, of which I know that they are often coming from a multigenerational cycle of abusers. I also watch a lot of crime shows but I know a lot of that is dramatized, so I look forward to learning about what really goes into assessing criminals psychologically.

Regarding the discussion scenario, there are a lot of potential contributing factors presented in Steve’s case. It’s important to note that none of these can be claimed to be the direct cause, only contributions that have been found through research and observation over time.

Biological factors to criminal behavior can include chromosomal abnormalities, structural brain differences, poor nutrition, prenatal exposure to substances like alcohol or drugs, direct exposure to toxins, and hormones (Films Media Group, 2001, 8:46). Due to his reported frequent anger, abuse of alcohol, single-parent household providing for three adolescent/adult age males, and direct handling of methamphetamine equipment, which is made with poisonous substances, Steve could likely have biological factors contributing to his criminal activity.

Potential environmental factors to criminal behavior include demographics such as type of upbringing, socioeconomic strata, friends/social reference groups, age, race, and sex, and geographic factors such as where a person lives, what the neighborhood is like, whether its urban or rural, and whether they have personal space/understand that concept (13:47). For Steve, being a 21-year-old male with uncles and a father he looks up to who are in prison, frequently spending time at a drop house, and never having been in a committed relationship (unstable support systems) might be underlying contributors to his behavior.

Psychological factors, like mental illness, temporary insanity brought on by substances, maladjustment from inner turmoil, personality disorders like antisocial personality disorder or the most severe, psychopathy, are all strong contributors to criminal activity. Developmental factors though, like abuse or neglect in childhood, modeling of aggression or violent behavior, criminal patterns, sexual violence, especially factors which lower the sense of self-worth within an individual, can all be aggravators to other contributing factors (19:27). For Steve, we can’t say whether there are psychological factors, but we can assume there is some impact from neglect and dysfunction due to his father being incarcerated and older brother being absent, immediately putting Steve in that pressured position to “rise above” without the means, a high motivator for criminal behavior.


Films Media Group. (2001). The psychology of criminal behaviorFilms On Demand. ://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=105049&xtid=115854.

8-2 Short Paper: evaluate the effectiveness of leadership’s decision making


In this assignment, you will evaluate the effectiveness of leadership’s decision making in a provided scenario and explain both the positives and negatives. You will then develop recommendations for where leadership can improve.

Submit your assignment here. Make sure you’ve included all the required elements by reviewing the guidelines and rubric.


8-2 Short Paper: Evaluating Decision Making

In the described scenario, healthcare management adjusted to improve employee participation in decision-making, particularly regarding patient care. One of these adjustments involves switching to staff self-scheduling, with precedence given to more senior employees. While this choice initially provided advantages, problems arose as the holiday schedule was being made. There were disagreements and unfavorable effects due to the lack of attention placed on negotiation and assistance for all staff members. This paper will evaluate the positives and negatives of leadership’s decision-making, assess its effectiveness, and suggest recommendations for improvement.

One of the positives associated with the leadership’s decision-making is the increased staff involvement. By implementing staff self-scheduling, the leadership demonstrated a commitment to involving employees in decision-making processes. This approach can foster a sense of empowerment, ownership, and engagement among the staff. When employees are allowed to participate in decisions that directly impact their work, they feel valued and are more likely to be invested in the outcomes.

Another positive aspect of decision-making is the acknowledgment of experience and seniority. Granting priority to senior staff members in scheduling reflects an understanding and recognition of their expertise (Becker’s Healthcare, 2015). This recognition can promote a sense of loyalty and satisfaction among experienced employees. By valuing seniority, the leadership encourages retaining knowledgeable staff members who can mentor and guide their colleagues.

Additionally, transitioning to staff self-scheduling has the potential to streamline the scheduling process. It reduces the administrative burden for managers, allowing them to focus on other essential tasks. With self-scheduling, staff members have greater control over their schedules, enabling them to manage their work-life balance better. This flexibility can contribute to increased job satisfaction and overall employee well-being.

Lack of cooperation and negotiation when establishing the vacation schedule is a key drawback of the leadership’s decision-making. Leadership should have prioritized these crucial components, ignoring the value of encouraging one another and preserving a harmonious workplace. The leadership lost a chance to forge consensus and foster a feeling of ownership among the team by failing to include all staff members in the decision-making process and considering their viewpoints.

The team had a clear division due to the scheduling method giving senior staff members preference. Junior members felt marginalized, received less assistance, and received unfavorable treatment from their senior colleagues. The junior staff members’ morale, well-being, and job satisfaction were all negatively impacted by this division, which hampered teamwork and effective communication (Becker’s Healthcare, 2015). The lack of harmony and cooperation could have improved the department’s overall performance and productivity.

Moreover, the staff members suffered serious effects due to the disagreements and unfavorable environment brought on by the decision-making process. In a hypothetical situation, some staff members wished to switch floors or leave the hospital completely, and one left work in tears. The afflicted staff employees’ emotional suffering is a blatant sign of the harm poor decision-making has done to their well-being. Such instances may also result in higher turnover rates, costing the firm important skills and knowledge. Team dynamics, continuity of care, and overall organizational performance are negatively impacted by the emotional toll the staff members are under and the ensuing turnover.

In this scenario, the leadership’s decision-making approach cannot be considered effective due to its negative consequences on team dynamics, staff morale, and retention. While the intention to involve staff and recognize seniority had positive aspects, the need for more emphasis on collaboration and negotiation during the holiday schedule creation resulted in significant negative repercussions (Becker’s Healthcare, 2015). The adverse impact on staff well-being and the increased turnover risk indicates a failure to achieve the desired outcomes of a cohesive and supportive work environment.

One of the recommendations is for leadership to place a high value on fostering an atmosphere that promotes cooperation, negotiation, and respect. All parties involved in the decision-making process must be included, as well as open communication and active listening. In order to make decisions that are more informed and inclusive, leaders can use their team members’ different viewpoints and knowledge by encouraging a collaborative culture (Becker’s Healthcare, 2015). Second, ensuring that self-scheduling and other scheduling modifications are fair and transparent is essential. Scheduling decisions should consider various aspects, such as individual preferences, availability, and task allocation, rather than merely seniority in a fair system. This strategy fosters a sense of justice and equity among the team while acknowledging each employee’s needs.

For senior and junior staff members, leadership should fund training initiatives that improve communication and conflict resolution abilities. Through this training, people can acquire the skills to resolve disputes amicably, foster empathy, and foster a supportive workplace environment. Leaders can reduce tensions, promote cooperation, and establish stronger relationships among team members by cultivating good communication and conflict-resolution abilities (Becker’s Healthcare, 2015). Additionally, self-scheduling can also offer flexibility, but leadership is still required to ensure everyone’s overall work-life balance is considered. This approach entails taking proactive steps to avoid overworking workers during busy times or holidays, granting enough vacation time, and supporting mental health and well-being initiatives. Leaders may develop an environment of support and compassion at work that encourages engagement and productivity by prioritizing employee well-being.

Finally, leadership should support and promote staff members’ opportunities for professional development. One example is giving people access to training courses, gatherings, workshops, or mentorship programs. Investing in their growth and development boosts employee skills, knowledge advancement, job happiness, and team engagement.


Becker’s Healthcare. (2015). Leaders: Prevent bad decision-making by becoming a decision architect. Becker’s Hospital Review. https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration/leaders-prevent-bad-decision-making-by-becoming-a-decision-architect.html




8-1 Discussion: Contract negotiation with external resources in crisis situations


In this assignment, you will discuss contract negotiation with external resources in crisis situations. You will determine which items are negotiable and nonnegotiable, as well as how to effectively negotiate.

In your initial post, address the following:

  • Select one of the external resources you determined necessary to your final project in Milestone Two.
  • Determine the items you deem negotiable (e.g., terms, price), and explain your reasoning.
  • Determine the items you deem nonnegotiable (e.g., security features), and explain your reasoning.

In response to your peers, consider their initial posts. Is their reasoning sound for the items deemed negotiable and nonnegotiable? Explain. Is there something else they should consider?

To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric.



External Resources Necessary

During instances of system downtime, the implementation of a Cloud-based Electronic Health Record (EHR) system ensures uninterrupted management of patient care by facilitating real-time access and efficient storage of patient information through any Internet-connected device, irrespective of geographical boundaries. Furthermore, the adoption of a Electronic Health Record (EHR) system guarantees adherence to HIPAA laws and regulations by restricting access to authorized individuals only. Consequently, healthcare organizations must not only choose an appropriate Cloud-based EHR system that offers the required functionalities but also ascertain the negotiable and non-negotiable components within the contractual agreement with the vendor.

Negotiable Items

The negotiable items should pertain solely to workflow and procedures that do not compromise the security, privacy, and compliance of Patient Health Information (PHI) with applicable laws and regulations. Consequently, the following are the items deemed negotiable.

Pricing Structure

The pricing structure of cloud-based Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems offers financial flexibility to healthcare organizations, enabling them to choose an approach that aligns with their financial standing. For instance, certain EHR vendors may impose a one-time payment model, which typically entails a higher upfront cost compared to subscription-based payments, which are typically lower and recurring. The payment model employed can also influence the availability of system upgrades for cloud-based EHRs. One-time payments often necessitate a new license payment when upgrading to a new or updated system. Conversely, subscription-based payments generally include system updates at no additional cost. Additionally, ongoing maintenance of cloud-based EHR systems may require a separate payment structure apart from the initial payment. Consequently, the pricing structure can be subject to negotiation to determine the most suitable payment approach for healthcare organizations.

Price milestone-based payment schedule

While the implementation of a milestone-based payment schedule is considered the optimal approach for healthcare organizations to ensure compliance with contractual obligations by Cloud-based Electronic Health Record (EHR) system vendors, it is plausible that vendors may not endorse this payment structure and instead propose an alternative arrangement. Consequently, healthcare organizations may engage in negotiations to explore alternative payment models if the Cloud-based EHR system is determined to be the most suitable option.

Implementation schedule

The implementation of a novel cloud-based Electronic Health Record (EHR) system presents considerable challenges. Consequently, it is advisable to engage in negotiations regarding the implementation schedule. This approach allows both the healthcare organization and the cloud-based EHR system vendor to conduct the implementation process in a manner that ensures enhanced security and efficiency.

Configuration and customization

The presence of a customizable cloud-based Electronic Health Record (EHR) system can provide considerable advantages to healthcare organizations, given the diverse range of healthcare services offered by each organization. The availability of a customizable and configurable cloud-based EHR system empowers healthcare organizations to select and implement the most suitable configuration that aligns with their specific needs and requirements.

contract duration and trial period

When transitioning to a new Electronic Health Record (EHR) system, healthcare organizations are advised to engage in contract negotiations to establish a duration that enables them to evaluate the software within a defined timeframe, ensuring its efficacy and associated benefits before committing to an extended contract duration.

Non-negotiable Items

Data security and privacy

Ensuring the security and privacy of Patient Health Information (PHI) is very important and should be upheld without any concessions. Moreover, healthcare organizations are obligated by both legal mandates and ethical guidelines to safeguard all patient data by employing a reputable vendor offering a cloud-based Electronic Health Record (EHR) system.

Certification and compliance with laws and regulations

Healthcare organizations have a legal obligation to comply with laws and regulations pertaining to patient security, privacy, and safety in order to avoid liability and potential financial penalties. Consequently, it is imperative for cloud-based Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems to obtain certification and demonstrate adherence to applicable laws and regulations.


Cloud-based Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems are required to possess robust interoperability capabilities, enabling secure communication of patient information across various departments within the healthcare organization and facilitating seamless data exchange with external healthcare entities, all while maintaining strict adherence to privacy and safety protocols.

Scalability, uptime, and recovery mechanisms

A cloud-based Electronic Health Record (EHR) system must possess scalability to effectively accommodate future expansion and ensure its enduring suitability. Furthermore, continuous accessibility of the cloud-based EHR system is imperative, given the urgency involved in providing timely patient care. Additionally, it is crucial to establish and promptly implement recovery mechanisms in the event of system downtime, minimizing any delays in system restoration.


While the negotiability of training hours and methods may vary, it is imperative that the vendor of the Cloud-based Electronic Health Record (EHR) system provide the appropriate training materials to ensure proficient and adept utilization of the system by all personnel within the healthcare organization.





Amatayakul, M. (2017). Health IT Vendor Selection and Contract Negotiation. In Health it and ehrs: Principles and practice (pp. 206–209). essay, American Health Information Management Association.

Health Information Technology Research Center (HITRC) , Iowa Foundation for Medical Care (IFMC) , Stratis Health , & Arkansas Foundation for Medical Care (AFMC). (2012, March 31). Contracting Guidelines and Checklist for Electronic Health Record (EHR) Vendor Selection . https://www.healthit.gov › sites › default › files › resources

7-2 Milestone Four: Evaluating Success: Develop a plan to continuously evaluate the success of the contingency plan


In this milestone, you will develop a plan to continuously evaluate the success of the contingency plan. You will create measurable outcomes and criteria by which to measure these outcomes and develop a procedure to continuously evaluate and improve the contingency plan.

To complete this assignment, review the following documents:


Developing measurable outcomes is crucial for assessing the effectiveness of a contingency plan. In the case of a ransomware incident, several key metrics can be identified to gauge the plan’s success. The first measurable outcome is the Incident Response Time, which refers to the duration required to discover, respond to, and contain a ransomware incident (Zare et al., 2020). The objective is to reduce this response time, enabling a swift and effective response to mitigate the attack’s impact. The Recovery Time Objective (RTO) is another crucial measure. Following a ransomware attack, this metric calculates how long it takes to restore critical systems and carry on with daily operations. Organizations can minimize operational disruption and the financial and reputational losses brought on by extended downtime by setting a clear target for the RTO to ensure a prompt recovery from the attack.

Another important measurable consequence is system availability. It evaluates the percentage of time that authorized personnel can access key systems. Organizations can decrease downtime by boosting system availability, allowing workers to complete their assignments quickly and accurately (Plung, 1980). By ensuring that critical systems are available when required, this objective strives to increase productivity and customer satisfaction. Finally, data loss is crucial for assessing how well a backup plan works. It gauges the quantity of data that a ransomware assault permanently destroys. For data integrity and protecting sensitive information, minimizing data loss is essential. Businesses can safeguard their priceless data assets and lessen the effect of data loss during ransomware by using reliable backup systems and security measures.

Specific criteria must be set to assess each item to gauge the effectiveness of the proposed outcomes for a contingency plan. Various factors can be used to gauge the success of the Incident Response Time, starting with that. Before anything else, it is critical to identify any bottlenecks or delays that may have occurred during the incident response process and assess how they may have affected the total response time and effectiveness (Forster et al., 2012). This analysis will assist in locating potential areas for enhancement and optimization of the response processes. Additionally, assessing how quickly the ransomware incident was found after the initial breach or suspicious activity is important. An attack’s impact can be greatly diminished by prompt identification.

Moving on, several metrics can be used to judge the success of the Recovery Time Objective. It is first vital to confirm that all important system functions have been recovered and evaluate their functioning following the recovery procedure. This assessment confirms that the retrieved systems are operational and meet the necessary criteria. Additionally, it is important to evaluate the availability and effective use of the appropriate personnel, equipment, and software during the recovery process (Zare et al., 2020). The speed of recuperation can be greatly influenced by having the appropriate resources on hand and employing them efficiently.

Several factors can be used to determine whether System Availability was successful. To ascertain whether the predetermined goals were achieved, it is crucial to first contrast the actual system availability with established targets or Service Level Agreements (SLAs) (Forster et al., 2012). This evaluation ensures the achievement of the anticipated levels of system availability. The total system downtime during the prescribed assessment period should also be measured. This criterion offers information about the organization’s real downtime, which aids in locating potential improvement areas.

Finally, specific criteria can be set to evaluate the effects of data loss. The first step in enhancing data security is determining whether any vulnerabilities or flaws in the data protection mechanisms have been found and fixed (Plung, 1980). This evaluation ensures that the company is actively strengthening its data protection strategies. In addition, it is important to examine the level of data loss brought on by the ransomware assault and the success of any preventative measures. The attack’s impact is quantified by this study, which also evaluates the efficiency of the data security safeguards already in place.

A procedure incorporating various measures to evaluate and test the plan’s effectiveness should be established to ensure the ongoing success of the contingency plan and facilitate continuous improvements. Regular monitoring should involve IT staff and security personnel to closely monitor the systems and promptly identify potential vulnerabilities or issues. Also, annual audits should be performed by the IT staff in collaboration with management to assess the overall effectiveness of the contingency plan and identify areas for improvement (Forster et al., 2012). Incident reporting should occur quarterly, involving all staff members, to gather information on incidents or near-misses, enabling the organization to identify trends and take corrective actions.

Stakeholder feedback should be collected annually, involving management and IT staff, to gain insights from key stakeholders on their experience with the contingency plan and to identify areas for enhancement. Security personnel and IT staff should conduct quarterly incident analyses to thoroughly examine incidents, understand the root causes, and implement necessary measures to prevent similar incidents (Zare et al., 2020). Monthly performance metrics should be tracked and analyzed by management to assess the ongoing performance of the contingency plan, enabling proactive adjustments and improvements.

A systemic approach can be used to implement improvements to the contingency plan, which entails several crucial elements. The first approach is performing a comprehensive study and evaluating the current contingency plan. Analyzing incident reports, performance indicators, stakeholder comments, and audit results is part of this process. It is possible to provide a clear roadmap for implementing changes by identifying potential gaps in the plan or areas needing development. Prioritizing the areas for improvement based on their significance and impact is another approach after they have been identified. This approach entails evaluating the risks that could be present in each area and considering the possible effects on system availability, data integrity, and overall company operations. Prioritizing the areas for improvement simplifies distributing resources and concentrating attention on the most important parts of the plan.

The next step is to create precise strategies and action plans for each area that needs improvement, keeping the areas’ priorities in mind. This step could entail improving incident response protocols, adding new technology or security measures, updating, or amending current procedures, or bolstering data backup and recovery procedures. In addition to being adapted to the specific demands and requirements of the firm, the strategies should align with industry best practices (Plung, 1980). Effective coordination and collaboration between many stakeholders are necessary for implementing improvement initiatives. This step involves management, the IT team, security workers, and other pertinent staff members. Communication channels should be set up to ensure all stakeholders know the planned improvements, goals, and expected results. It is crucial to develop a clear knowledge of the adjustments that must be made and the obligations of each stakeholder.

Training and awareness initiatives should ensure employees have the knowledge and skills to support the improvements. This approach could entail educating the public about security best practices, delivering training on improved processes, or doing drills and simulations to gauge the viability of the modified contingency plan.



Forster, A., Dervin, G., Martin Jr., C., & Papp, S. (2012). Improving patient safety through the systematic evaluation of patient outcomes. Canadian Journal of Surgery, 55(6), 418–425. https://doi.org/10.1503/cjs.007811

Plung, D. L. (1980). Writing the Persuasive Business Letter. Journal of Business Communication, 17(3), 45–49. https://doi.org/10.1177/002194368001700305

Zare, H., Wang, P., Zare, M. J., Azadi, M., & Olsen, P. (2020). Business continuity plan and risk assessment analysis in case of a cyber attack disaster in healthcare organizations. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 137–144. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43020-7_19