R.P. 2 on Modernism

R.P. 2 on Modernism
Due: Thursday, Sept. 29 (was due on 27, but I pushed it back); print out copy, but submit to canvas as well
Value: 50 points
Length: 2-3 pages + works cited; provide in-text citations for anything quoted, paraphrase, and/or summarized; provide works cited entry for each source
Evaluation: See last page of syllabus for grade criteria

1. Read about Modernism here: https://poets.org/text/brief-guide-modernismLinks to an external site. and here: https://www.poetryfoundation.org/collections/152025/an-introduction-to-modernismLinks to an external site.

2. Compose your own list of what potential THEMES or STYLES are, based on what you’ve read. Citations are certainly to be expected as you write this.

3. Choose any of the following poems on which to discuss how they illustrate a certain style or theme, with at least TWO (2) references from the poem + analysis about those lines.

*Notice that poem titles go in “quotation marks”. If you seek to use information about the poet (biographical details, for instance), you’d cite the page you learned that information from (“William Carlos Williams bio”) for example. Please have a little bit of fun with this assignment–I’m not asking for a full explication–just how do you think one or two of these poems illustrate some style or theme made “new” / relevant in this “modernist” era of writing.

For a reminder on proper citation for poems and more, visit here: https://www.scribbr.com/category/mla/ Links to an external site.
or here: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_formatting_and_style_guide.html

Short Writing Assignment 1

Choose 1 of the 4 writing or presentation options.pptxDownload Choose 1 of the 4 writing or presentation options.pptx

Grading Rubric.docxDownload Grading Rubric.docx

INSTRUCTIONS:

Choose a topic from the “suggestions” or construct your own topic from the 1860s – 1930s.  Certain “suggestions” are already arranged into a topical question that can be used as the basis for the presentation.  Focus on a topic that allows you to make a critique.

Use at least one reference and cite it multiple times inside the paragraphs.  At the bottom of the presentation, list the full reference(s) in a Works Cited page.

Present a topic in a 3 paragraph essay, or a Thinking Like a Historian Map presentation, or a S.E.E.-I. presentation, or a Double-Arch presentation.  Open the link for instructions on how to construct these writings or  presentations.  You MUST choose one of these three presentation formats to earn credit.

Write 10 – 20 sentences.

The overall objective is to construct an effective presentation with well supported evidence.

Use as few words as possible in your sentences.

If students choose, there can be made lists of sentences instead of using complete paragraphs.

Make sure the wording makes sense and illustrates your own ideas.

Don’t hesitate to use images as well.

Use statistical evidence to support the information.

Avoid grammatical errors.

Suggested Topics:

1. Within 10 years (1870 – 1880), 25% of the total number of African American Senators in U.S. history were elected.  The remaining 75% of the total number of African American Senators in U.S. history were elected between 1966 and 2016.  Between 1881 and 1966, almost 100 years, no African Americans were elected to the U.S. Senate.  Why was this so?

2.  Consider the adoption of the 15th amendment and how different persons responded to this reforming effort.  Consider what the 15th amendment does not include and what additional voting rights were still demanded by citizens.  Such demands were eventually satisfied from subsequent amendments and laws adopted in the 20th century.

3.  Consider how Abraham Lincoln’s assassination affected the outcome of Reconstruction.  Consider the power struggle that ensued and the efforts of the “Redeemers” to change to course of Reconstruction.

4. Outline the ripple effect from the Compromise of 1877.  Why do many African American history textbooks refer to this compromise as the “Great Betrayal”?

5. For what reasons were so many ex-Confederates worth $20,000 or more pardoned by U.S. presidents during the Reconstruction era (1863 – 1877)?

6. What was the legacy of the Reconstruction amendments?  How limited were these amendments when considering civil rights?

7. What three new groups gravitated to U.S. cities during the Gilded Age?  What impact did these migrations have on city populations and/or culture?

8. What factors changed for women who lived in U.S. cities during the Gilded Age?  What was the “New Woman” and how did this compare to the previous generation of women?

9. What new U.S. Constitutional amendments were added shortly after the Gilded Age?  How did these amendments reflect the newer U.S. culture in the early 20th century?

10.  Which specific U.S. Constitutional amendment added between 1865 and 1920 has had the greatest impact on U.S. culture and/or civil rights?  Construct an argument to defend your position.

11. Which specific U.S. constitutional amendment added between 1865 and 1920 do  you think was the most counter-productive amendment?  Construct an argument to defend your position.

12.  What were some motivations for state governments and eventually the United States government to introduce mandatory school for children during the early 1900s?

13.  What political problems were present during the Gilded Age?  What problems existed regarding voting?

14. Why was the voter turnout higher during the Gilded Age than during the 20th and 21st centuries?

15. What problems persisted in college football games that raised concern among college administrators during the late 1800s and early 1900s?  How were these problems solved during the early 1900s?

16. Many southern Democrats criticized U.S. colonization efforts during the late 1800s and early 1900s.  Other U.S. Americans argued against U.S. annexation of foreign territories during the late 1800s and early 1900s.  Why?

17. Which are the most important factors that influenced the outbreak of World War I in 1914?

18. Which are the most important factors that influenced the United States to enter World War I in 1917?

19. How and why did Hawaii become a U.S. territory in the 1890s?

20. Why did the Lost generation reject many of the ideas popular among the Victorian generation?

21. What similar forms of disinformation and/or economic motivation were influential in starting U.S. wars in Iraq (2003 – 2011) and the Philippines (1899 -1902)?

22. What similarities existed between “yellow journalism” during the late 1800s/early 1900s and modern media sources during the 2000s?

23. What were some of the reasons why the U.S. government occupied Hawaii and the Philippines in the late 1890s and Iraq during the early 2000s?

24. Why in both the early 1900s and in the early 2000s were there dramatically more female teachers than male teachers in early childhood and elementary schools?  Incorporate this data from a 2017 from www.the-standard.org (Links to an external site.): “According to data from the U.S. Department of Labor, 77.9% of elementary and middle school teachers in 2017 were women. For preschool and kindergarten teachers, that figure was 97.2%.”

25. Which U.S. Presidents have been impeached in U.S. history and why? What resulted in the next Presidential elections after these impeachments took place?

26. How did Presidential pardons affect the outcome of the Reconstruction era (1863 – 1877) and into the later 19th century?

27. What was the Credit Mobilier scandal from the 1870s and what were some of the results from the incident?

28. What happened in the 1876 Presidential election that prompted disputes with the votes in certain states?

29. What was the most progressive change or changes associated with American women during the 1920s?

30. Describe the status of the U.S. economy during the 1920s from the start of the decade until the end of the decade.

31. Explain three factors from the 1920s that caused the Great Depression of the 1930s?  What is the most important statistic that illustrates the Great Depression and why?

32. How did new music and new art, rooted from the early 1900s, impact and then reflect young adult culture during the 1920s?

33. Construct a “recipe” from the 1920s that produced the Great Depression during the 1930s.

34. What are the opposing arguments about the current presence of Confederate monuments? What eras were most of these Confederate monuments and dedications established, and why?

35. What were the 4 Constitutional amendments added between 1913 – 1920 and which was the most impacting throughout the 20th and 21st centuries?

36. What new forms of art in painting were introduced during the Progressive era (late 1890s – 1920)?

37. What were the motivations behind the adoption of the 18th amendment (1919)?

38. Why did more people in photographs smile after the early 1900s? What changed with photograph technology from the previous eras?

39. What happened on January 6th, 2021 in Washington D.C.? What factors brought on what happened?

40. Why was President Bill Clinton impeached?

41. Why was President Donald Trump impeached twice?

SOC 101 Short Writing Assignment 1 Each query below requires a…

The status of the U.S. economy during the 1920s

Research Paper Questions (200 points):

Select one of the suggested topics.

 

 OR

 

Create your own topic from any time between the 1860s and 1930s. But verify the topic you created with the professor beforehand.

  1. Describe the status of the U.S. economy during the 1920s.  What economic trends were present during this decade?  Explain some of the common cultural and spending behaviors found among young adults during this decade.  Despite the 18th amendment, how were there inconsistencies with prohibition of alcohol?  How had various circumstances from the 1920s influenced an economic crash by the end of the decade?  Provide statistics to support your answer.

 

Writing Instructions:

  1. Choose 1 of the 5 essay questions to answer.
  2. Write 3-5 pages to explain your position.
  3. Paragraphs in this assignment need at least 5 sentences.
  4. Type and double-space your answers.
  5. Use at least two references to support your answer.  (The textbook and/or notes from class may be used as references).  Do not use Wikipedia.
  6. Cite the two references multiple times throughout the paragraphs.  Ideally, there should be 3 – 5 citations within each paragraph.
  7. Provide statistics to support your answer.
  8. Use APA or MLA or Chicago footnote format.
  9. Provide a work cited page in addition to your 3-5 pages essay.

 

 

APA citation examples

 

            APA format includes parenthetical citation after the stated fact.          

 

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 helped influence anti-slavery attitudes in the North due

 

to its stated policy that slavery was prohibited in new states north of the Ohio River (Shi,

 

2018).

 

MLA citation examples

 

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 helped influence anti-slavery attitudes in the North due

 

to its stated policy that slavery was prohibited in new states north of the Ohio River (Shi,

 

  1. 123).

 

Chicago Citation examples:

 

Chicago style includes footnotes after the stated fact.

 

Example: The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 helped influence anti-slavery attitudes in

 

the North due to its stated policy that slavery was prohibited in new states north of the

factors motivated U.S. expansion and colonialism in specific regions around the globe during the late 1800s and early 1900s?

factors motivated U.S. expansion and colonialism in specific regions around the globe during the late 1800s and early 1900s?

esearch Paper Questions (200 points):

Select one of the suggested topics.

 

 OR

 

Create your own topic from any time between the 1860s and 1930s. But verify the topic you created with the professor beforehand.

 

  1. What factors motivated U.S. expansion and colonialism in specific regions around the globe during the late 1800s and early 1900s?  What was ‘dollar diplomacy’ and how did it represent U.S. foreign policy during the early 20th century?  What industries and raw materials were highly valued and connected to U.S. global growth?  Provide statistics to support your answer.

What new consumer goods helped define the Progressive era (1890 – 1920) and why?

What new consumer goods helped define the Progressive era (1890 – 1920) and why?

Research Paper Questions (200 points):

Select one of the suggested topics.

 

 OR

 

Create your own topic from any time between the 1860s and 1930s. But verify the topic you created with the professor beforehand.

 

  1. What new consumer goods helped define the Progressive era (1890 – 1920) and why?  Explain how these consumer goods changed U.S. culture.  Describe two new forms of art or media born during this era and their significance on U.S. culture.  What reforms took place among many U.S. women during this era?  What new Constitutional amendments were adopted during this era and what changes applied as a result of these amendments?  Provide statistics to support your answer.

Describe the levels of immigration, industrialization, and urbanization that took place within the United States during the late 1800s and early 1900s.

Describe the levels of immigration, industrialization, and urbanization that took place within the United States during the late 1800s and early 1900s.

Research Paper Questions (200 points):

Select one of the suggested topics.

 

 OR

 

Create your own topic from any time between the 1860s and 1930s. But verify the topic you created with the professor beforehand.

 

  1. Describe the levels of immigration, industrialization, and urbanization that took place within the United States during the late 1800s and early 1900s.  What role did settlement houses play in urban regions during this era?   What reforms were made for children and why?  Name and describe some popular activities found in U.S. culture during this era?  What reforms took place during this era on behalf of women’s rights?  Provide statistics to support your answer.       

Explain the policies and objectives of the U.S. government during the Reconstruction (1863-1877).

Research Paper Questions (200 points):

Select one of the suggested topics.

 

 OR

 

Create your own topic from any time between the 1860s and 1930s. But verify the topic you created with the professor beforehand.

 

  1. Explain the policies and objectives of the U.S. government during the Reconstruction (1863-1877).  What legal and social factors most affected numerous ex-Confederates citizens and why?  How were African American voters affected by the Compromise of 1877?  When and why were Black Codes and Jim Crow laws established in the ex-Confederate states?  Provide statistics to support your answer.

 

  1. Describe the levels of immigration, industrialization, and urbanization that took place within the United States during the late 1800s and early 1900s.  What role did settlement houses play in urban regions during this era?   What reforms were made for children and why?  Name and describe some popular activities found in U.S. culture during this era?  What reforms took place during this era on behalf of women’s rights?  Provide statistics to support your answer.       

 

  1. What new consumer goods helped define the Progressive era (1890 – 1920) and why?  Explain how these consumer goods changed U.S. culture.  Describe two new forms of art or media born during this era and their significance on U.S. culture.  What reforms took place among many U.S. women during this era?  What new Constitutional amendments were adopted during this era and what changes applied as a result of these amendments?  Provide statistics to support your answer.

 

  1. What factors motivated U.S. expansion and colonialism in specific regions around the globe during the late 1800s and early 1900s?  What was ‘dollar diplomacy’ and how did it represent U.S. foreign policy during the early 20th century?  What industries and raw materials were highly valued and connected to U.S. global growth?  Provide statistics to support your answer.

 

  1. Describe the status of the U.S. economy during the 1920s.  What economic trends were present during this decade?  Explain some of the common cultural and spending behaviors found among young adults during this decade.  Despite the 18th amendment, how were there inconsistencies with prohibition of alcohol?  How had various circumstances from the 1920s influenced an economic crash by the end of the decade?  Provide statistics to support your answer.

 

 

 

 

Writing Instructions:

  1. Choose 1 of the 5 essay questions to answer.
  2. Write 3-5 pages to explain your position.
  3. Paragraphs in this assignment need at least 5 sentences.
  4. Type and double-space your answers.
  5. Use at least two references to support your answer.  (The textbook and/or notes from class may be used as references).  Do not use Wikipedia.
  6. Cite the two references multiple times throughout the paragraphs.  Ideally, there should be 3 – 5 citations within each paragraph.
  7. Provide statistics to support your answer.
  8. Use APA or MLA or Chicago footnote format.
  9. Provide a work cited page in addition to your 3-5 pages essay.

 

 

APA citation examples

 

            APA format includes parenthetical citation after the stated fact.          

 

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 helped influence anti-slavery attitudes in the North due

 

to its stated policy that slavery was prohibited in new states north of the Ohio River (Shi,

 

2018).

 

MLA citation examples

 

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 helped influence anti-slavery attitudes in the North due

 

to its stated policy that slavery was prohibited in new states north of the Ohio River (Shi,

 

  1. 123).

 

Chicago Citation examples:

 

Chicago style includes footnotes after the stated fact.

 

Example: The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 helped influence anti-slavery attitudes in

 

the North due to its stated policy that slavery was prohibited in new states north of the

 

Ohio River.[1]

*To insert the footnote, use the “References” option at the top of an MS Word document and click “Insert Footnote” at the end of the sentences.

[1] David Emory Shi, America: The Essential Learning Edition (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2018), [page number if using a quote].

Research Paper 2 Questions

 

Thinking Like a Historian Map presentation

Write 10 – 20 sentences

Present a topic in a 3-paragraph essay, or a Thinking Like a Historian Map presentation, or a S.E.E.-I. presentation, or a Double-Arch presentation.  Open the link for instructions on how to construct these writings or presentations.  You MUST choose one of these four writing or presentation formats to earn credit.

The overall objective is to construct an effective presentation with well supported evidence.

Choose a topic from the “suggestions” or construct your own topic from the 1940s – 2020s.  Certain “suggestions” are already arranged into a topical question that can be used as the basis for the presentation.  Focus on a topic that allows you to make a critique.

Use at least one reference and cite it multiple times inside the sentences.

At the bottom of the presentation, list the full reference(s) in a Works Cited page.

Use as few words as possible in your sentences.

If students choose, there can be made lists of sentences instead of using complete paragraphs.

Make sure the wording makes sense and illustrates your own ideas.

Don’t hesitate to use images as well.

Use statistical evidence to support the information.

Avoid grammatical errors.

SUGGESTIONS: 

1. What factors have increased the divorce rate since the 1970s and maintained a 50% rate into the early 21st century? What factors have influences a decrease in that 50% divorce rate since 2010?

2. What technological innovations have influenced new family dynamics and activities since the 1980s, or 1990s, or early 2000s; or all of these decades?

3. How did supply side economics or “Reaganomics” contribute to ending the Cold War?

4. What comparisons can be made between the U.S.-Vietnam War (1964 – 1973) and the Soviet-Afghanistan War (1981 – 1989)?

5. Outline the components to President Richard Nixon’s Triangular diplomacy during the early 1970s.

6. Why was the E.R.A. never adopted into the U.S. Constitution?

7. What is the “glass ceiling” and is it fair to men and women?

8. Why are able bodied 18 year old females not required to register for the U.S. military draft?

9. What new type of rock & roll music was present and popular during the 1980s?

10. What was different about the types of popular rock & roll music from the 1970s and 1980s and 1990s?

11. What historical factors influenced declining voter turnout rates since the end of the 1970s and through the 2000s?

12. What historical and newer social factors have influenced increasing rates of D.I.N.K.s since the end of the 1970s and through the 2000s?

13. Outline the history of video game consoles since the end of the 1970s and through the 2000s?  What social effects emerged from the rising popularity of home video game systems?

14. Why have public video game arcades declined in popularity since the late 1990s?

15. Why so often are males socially and economically pressured into paying for activities or food while on romantic dates with females?

16. How much more often do females pay for activities or food while on romantic dates with males in the 21st century in comparison to the 20th century?

17. What circumstances motivated President Jimmy Carter’s “Malaise” or “Crisis in Confidence” speech in 1979?  What was Carter’s message attempting to convince?

18. What made Governor Ronald Reagan extremely successful in winning the 1980s Presidential election?  Why was his opponent, President Jimmy Carter, so unpopular by 1980?

19. Why does the United States consume more oil than any other nation in the world?  Include statistical evidence.

20. What was the PMRC and why and how did representatives from the music industry fight against it?

21. Define the I-Gen or Generation Z (born late 1990s – present day) and compare the differences and similarities to the Millennial Generation (born early 1980s – 1990s).

22. How did Ronald Reagan’s presidency influence rap music in the 1980s and 1990s?

23. Why did rap music become more mainstream in U.S. culture than rock & roll during the 1990s and 2000s?

26. From 1789 – 2021 (232 years), there have been 46 U.S. Presidential administrations with only 3 U.S. Presidents ever getting impeached. Yet 2 out those 3 Presidents were impeached in only the last 22 years. What makes this statistic unique or unusual?

27. What was the Iran Contra Affair during the 1980s?

28. Outline how numerous smaller-scale wars from earlier decades evolved into World War 2.

29. Construct a “recipe” from the 1920s and 1930s that produced World War II during the 1940s.

30. What factors prompted the rise of National Socialism in Germany during the 1920s and 1930s?

31. How did the Wannsee Conference (1942) impact the Holocaust in Europe?

32. Why did the United States enter World War II directly in 1941 and not earlier?

33. What factors, besides defeating the Japanese in World War 2, motivated the United States government to decide to drop atomic bombs on Japan in August, 1945?

34. What prompted suicide warfare during World War 2?

35. What factors produced the Holocaust during World War 2?

36. Outline the argument that persists over Confederate monuments and dedications to street and school names.  What are the opposing sides and what are eras when most of these Confederate monuments and dedications were established?  What motivated such actions?

37. What was the status of most middle-class women in the United States during the 1950s – 1960s?  What changes occurred with middle-class women and their status after the 1960s and through the 2000s?

38. What new music became the most popular form of music among young adults and teenagers during the 1950s – 1960s?  How had this type of music evolved after the 1960s?

39. What connections can be made between racial prejudices and rock & roll during the 1950s?  What marketing technique was used to influence more people to tolerate rock & roll?

40. Compare the nuclear arms buildups between the United States and Soviet Union during the Cold War.  What factors motivated both nations to compete aggressively in a nuclear arms race?

41. What problems were solved from the Civil Rights Movement during the 1950s and 1960s?  What civil rights problems were not solved during the 1950s and 1960s and continue in the 21st century?

42. Communism vs. Capitalism: pros and cons?

43. Martin Luther King vs. Malcolm X: What were the differences in their ideologies?

44. From a U.S. perspective, what factors motivated the “Red Scare” during the 1950s?

45. From a Soviet Union perspective, what factors motivated a “Red, White, and Blue Scare” during the 1950s?

46. What was the purpose of the “Duck and Cover” campaign with Bert the Turtle?  What was misleading about this presentation?

47. Outline the competitions found within the “Space Race” between the United States and Soviet Union during the Cold War.  What factors motivated both nations to compete aggressively to achieve advanced spaceflight technologies?

48. Outline the crimes against humanity committed by the Soviet dictator, Josef Stalin.  Why was Stalin still loved and adored by so many Soviet citizens despite his mass murders against his own people?

49. Outline the historical steps that lead to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962?

50. Why was the John Kennedy assassination reported by the government as to have involved a “lone gunman”?  According to the film showing the assassination, what appears to contradict the U.S. government’s claim?

51. What was the Marihuana Tax Act (1937) and what were some of the historical factors that prompted its adoption by the U.S. government? Describe then the history of marijuana’s image  in the United States during the mid-1900s – late 1900s.

52. What type of bombs and aircraft were mainly utilized against Japan during World War 2 that brought on the devastation of 67 Japanese cities between 1943 – 1945, according to veteran Robert McNamara? Why were these bombs strategically used before the dropping of atomic bombs on additional Japanese cities?

53. What were some of President Franklin Roosevelt’s solutions to ending the Great Depression during the 1930s and early 1940s?

54. How did President Franklin Roosevelt become able to exhibit the appearance of him standing in the eyes of the public, despite spending most of his Presidency seated in a wheelchair?

55. What was Executive Order 9066, and what were the consequences?

56. Why are persons born in the United States from 1945 – 1965 considered “Baby Boomers”? What type of circumstances did most Baby Boomers grow up in during the 1950s – 1960s?

57. Why in the majority of 1950s single-income households were the men or husbands the only persons earning incomes?

58. What was Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) and what was its background and effect on future citizens?

Research Paper 2 Questions

Research Paper 2 Questions (200 points):

Suggested topics OR create your own topic from any time between the 1930s and the 2000s and verify beforehand with the professor

 

  1. Describe some of the strategies implemented by the U.S. government to improve the U.S. economy during the Great Depression (1929-1941)?  Provide specific examples of President Roosevelt’s New Deal programs or legislations.  What drug law reforms were made during this era and why?  What economic programs did the U.S. government undertake during the 1930s to improve the economy and conditions among people?

 

  1. What factors influenced the U.S. government to enter the war against Japan, Germany, and Italy in December 1941?  What types of fanatical warfare did the Japanese and Germans rely upon?  What measures did the U.S. military take to knock Germany and Japan out of the war?  How did the U.S. economy improve as a result of involvement in World War II?

 

  1. Describe some of the social conditions found among many U.S. women during the 1950s.  What physical and social pressures did many women during the 1950s encounter?  What information and insight did feminist author, Betty Friedan, provide in The Feminine Mystique that described women’s roles in U.S. societyDraw a few comparisons between the employment status of women during the 1950s and during the current 2000s.  Name several historical factors which influenced employment statuses between U.S. men and U.S. women between the 1950s and 2000s.

 

  1. Describe some examples of segregation between skin-color groups within the U.S. southeastern states during the 1950s.  What efforts were made to desegregate southeastern states among civil rights organizations?  Describe the differences between the civil rights efforts of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X. What sort of statements did these two men use in their speeches to further their causes?

 

  1. Define the term ‘counterculture’.  What specific circumstances related to the Kennedy assassination, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights Movement, and the Watergate scandal influenced counterculture movements during the 1960s and 1970s?   Provide any relevant statistics that influenced these movements.

 

  1. Outline three main factors which maintained the Cold War between the U.S. and Soviet Union between 1945 and 1991.  What were the differences in the U.S. and Soviet economies?  What conditions influenced the end of the Cold War in the late 1980s and early 1990s?

 

  1. What political issues from the late 1990s – 2020 have created an increased polarization between various political factions in the United States?  Why were there three impeachments of Presidents between 1999 and 2021?

 

 

Writing Instructions:

  1. Choose 1 of the 5 essay questions to answer.
  2. Write 3-5 pages to explain your position.
  3. Paragraphs in this assignment need at least 5 sentences.
  4. Type and double-space your answers.
  5. Provide statistics in your answer.
  6. Use at least two references to support your answer.  (The textbook and/or notes from class may be used as references).  Do not use Wikipedia.
  7. Cite the two references multiple times throughout the paragraphs.  Ideally, there should be 3 – 5 citations within each paragraph.
  8. Use APA or MLA or Chicago footnote format.
  9. Provide a work cited page in addition to your 3-5 pages essay.

 

APA citation examples

 

            APA format includes parenthetical citation after the stated fact.          

 

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 helped influence anti-slavery attitudes in the North due to its stated policy that slavery was prohibited in new states north of the Ohio River (Shi, 2018).

 

MLA citation examples

 

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 helped influence anti-slavery attitudes in the North due to its stated policy that slavery was prohibited in new states north of the Ohio River (Shi, p. 123).

 

Chicago Citation examples:

 

Chicago style includes footnotes after the stated fact.

 

Example: The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 helped influence anti-slavery attitudes in the North due to its stated policy that slavery was prohibited in new states north of the Ohio River.[1]

*To insert the footnote, use the “References” option at the top of an MS Word document and click “Insert Footnote” at the end of the sentences.

[1] David Emory Shi, America: The Essential Learning Edition (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2018), [page number if using a quote].

 

Why strategy implementation is so difficult for companies to achieve

Module 5: Discussion Question #5

Portfolio Management for Strategy Implementation

Many companies succeed in developing a solid strategy, but fail to deliver on the promise of that strategy. Why do you think strategy implementation is so difficult for companies to achieve?  Given what you now know about how project management can support implementation of strategy, through effective portfolio management, discuss what companies should do in order to improve their ability to deliver their strategies.